Download Effects of lighting time and lighting source on growth, yield and quality of greenhouse sweet PDF

Effects of lighting time and lighting source on growth, yield and quality of greenhouse sweet
Name: Effects of lighting time and lighting source on growth, yield and quality of greenhouse sweet
Pages: 63
Year: 2011
Language: English
File Size: 1.54 MB
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List of figures Fig. 1: Experimental design of cabinets. 6 Fig. 2: Measurement points of photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature. 10 Fig. 3: Time course of solar irradiation. Solar irradiation was mea sured every day and values for one week were cumulated. 12 Fig. 4: Photosynthetically active radiation (solar PAR + PAR of lamps) and air temperature at di fferent lighting regimes. PAR and air temperature was measured early in the morning at cloudy days. 13 Fig. 5: Soil temperature at different lighting regimes and different stem densities. The soil temperature was measured at little solar irradiation early in the morning. 14 Fig. 6: E.C. (a, c) and pH (b, d) of irrigation water (a, b) and runoff of irrigation water (c, d). 15 Fig. 7: Proportion of amount of runoff from applied irrigation water at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 16 Fig. 8: Water uptake at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 17 Fig. 9: Height of sweet pepper at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 18 Fig. 10: Relationship between height of sweet pepper and taken up water by sweet pepper plants at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 18 Fig. 11: Number of fruits (green and red) on the plant at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 19 Fig. 12: Cumulative total yield at different lighting regimes and stem densities. (1 st class: > 100 g, too little weight: < 100 g). 21 Fig. 13: Time course of accumula ted marketable yield at different lighting sources for interlighting and stem densities. 22 Fig. 14: Relationship between accumulated marketable yield and light intensity. 22 Fig. 15: Time course of accumula ted marketable yield at different lighting times and stem densities. 23 Fig. 16: Time course of accumula ted marketable yield at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 24 Fig. 17: Fruit set (fruit set (%) = (number of fruits harvested x 100) / total number of internodes) at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 25 Fig. 18: Sugar content of green and red fruits at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 27 III


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Fig. 19: Dry substance of green (a) and red (b) fruits at different 28 lighting regimes and stem densities. 29 Fig. 20: N content of green (a) and red (b) fruits at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 30 Fig. 21: Dry matter yield of stripped leaves at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 31 Fig. 22: Cumulative dry matter yield at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 32 Fig. 23: Cumulative N uptake of sweet pepper (2 stems/plant). 33 Fig. 24: NO 3 N and NH 4 N in input and runoff water. 34 Fig. 25: NO 3 N and NH 4 N in pumice at the end of the experiment. 34 Fig. 26: Energy use efficiency in relation to lighting regimes and stem density. 39 Fig. 27: Revenues at different light sources and lighting times. 40 Fig. 28: Variable costs (without lighting and labour costs). 41 Fig. 29: Division of variable costs. 41 Fig. 30: Profit margin in relation to light sources and lighting times and stem density. 44 List of tables Tab. 1: Irrigation of sweet pepper. 7 Tab. 2: Average distance between internodes and number of inter nodes at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 20 Tab. 3: Cumulative total number of marketable fruits (red and green) at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 25 Tab. 4: Proportion of marketable a nd unmarketable yield at different lighting regimes and stem densities. 26 Tab. 5: Lighting hours, power and energy in the cabinets. 35 Tab. 6: Costs and costs for consumpt ion of energy for distribution and sale of energy. 37 Tab. 7: Variable costs of electricity in relation to yield. 38 Tab. 8: Profit margin of sweet pepper at different light sources and lighting times and stem densities (urban area, VA210). 42 IV


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