Transforming the Multicultural Education of Teachers:Theory, Research, and Practice MICHAELVAVRUS Learning to Teach for Social Justice LINDADARLING HAMMOND, JENNIFERFRENCH,AND SILVIAPALOMAGARCIA LOPEZ, EDITORS Culture, Difference, and Power CHRISTINEE. SLEETER Learning and Not Learning English:Latino Students in American Schools GUADALUPEVALD S Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice GENEVAGAY The Children Are Watching:How the Media Teach About Diversity CARLOSE. CORT S Race and Culture in the Classroom:Teaching and Learning Through Multicultural Education MARYDILG The Light in Their Eyes:Creating Multicultural Learning Communities SONIANIETO Reducing Prejudice and Stereotyping in Schools WALTERSTEPHAN We Can't Teach What We Don't Know:White Teachers, Multiracial Schools GARYR. HOWARD Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society JAMESA. BANKS Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge, and Action: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives JAMESA. BANKS, EDITOR MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION SERIES James A. Banks, Series Editor
Published by Teachers College Press, 1234 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027 Copyright?2002 by Teachers College, Columbia University All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the publisher. Author's note:The author wishes to thank the publishers below for their permission to adapt the following material: The Evergreen State College (2000).Student Teaching Handbook(pp. 28, 33, 45). Olympia, WA: Author. Reprinted/adapted with permission. J. E. Helms and D. A. Cook,Using Race and Culture in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theory and Process(pp. 87 88, 90 91). Copyright?1999 by Allyn and Bacon. Reprinted/adapted with permission. Vavrus, M., Walton, S., Kido, J., Diffendal, E., & King, P. (1999).Journal of Teacher Education (vol. 50, no. 2) pp. 119 130, copyright?1999 by American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Reprinted/adapted by permission of Corwin Press, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Vavrus, Michael J. Transforming the multicultural education of teachers : theory, research, and practice/ Michael Vavrus ; foreword by Mary Dilworth. p. cm. (Multicultural education series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0 8077 4260 0 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN 0 8077 4261 9 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Teachers In service training United States. 2. Multicultural education United States. I. Title. II. Multicultural education series (New York, N.Y.) LB1731.V38 2002 370 .71 5 dc212002067316 ISBN 0 8077 4260 0 (paper) ISBN 0 8077 4261 9 (cloth) Printed on acid free paper Manufactured in the United States of America 0908070605040302 87654321
Contents Series Foreword byJames A. Banksvii Foreword byMary Dilworthxi Prefacexiii 1. Multicultural Teacher Education: Transformative Conceptions and Dimensions1 Conceptions of Multicultural Education 2 A Transformative Conception of Multicultural Education 6 Research Focus9 2. Multicultural Education Reform: The Status of Teacher Education15 Reform With a Multicultural Perspective 16 Status of Multicultural Education in Teacher Education 18 Gauging Multicultural Teacher Education Curriculum Reform 21 Conclusion30 3. Incorporating Multicultural Reform Into the Teacher Education Curriculum33 Creating a Multicultural Teacher Education Conceptual Framework 33 Reflective Multicultural Teacher Education and Ideology 38 Systematic Multicultural Education43 Conclusion47 4. Multicultural Teacher Education Standards 50 Managed Multicultural Education51 Exclusions and Standards53 A Pragmatic Antiracist Response to Managed Multiculturalism 54 A Transformative Multicultural Reconceptualization of NCATE Standards58 Conclusion71 5. Responding to Racism Through Teacher Education 74 Human Relations Paradigm Limitations on Antiracist Expressions 75 Racism as a Field of Study76 Antiracism in Teacher Education82 v
viContents Antiracism and Teacher Identity Formation 85 Antiracist Teacher Education Pedagogies 92 Conclusion99 6. Globalization and Multicultural Education 101 Globalization as a Multicultural Concept 103 Globalization and Colonialism104 Global Economic Production of Inequities 108 Global Economic Ideology and Education 114 Implications for Multicultural Teacher Education 119 Conclusion: What Does It Mean To Be a Teacher Under Globalization? 123 7. Weaving the Web of Multicultural Democracy 125 Democracy and Teacher Education: Contending With Provocative Declarative 1126 Democratic Consciousness and Moral Stewardship: Contending With Provocative Declaratives2&3 129 The Interrelationship of Democracy and Diversity: Contending With Provocative Declarative 4133 Inseparability of Teaching and Learning From Democracy and Diversity: Contending With Provocative Declarative 5 135 Moving Democratic Concepts Into Student Teaching: Contending With Provocative Declarative 6136 Connecting Democracy to Professional Practice 137 Evaluative Feedback139 Conclusion: Benefit of Collective Sharing and Action 140 8. Learning Communities for Multicultural Teacher Education 142 Learning, Community, and Democracy 143 Range of Understandings of Learning Communities 145 The Participants and Location of a Learning Community 149 Restructuring To Design a Learning Community 153 Toward a Transformative Multicultural Education Pedagogy 161 Conclusion164 Notes167 References169 Index203 About the Author217
Series Foreword The nation"s deepening ethnic texture, interracial tension and conflict, and the increasing percentage of students who speak a first language other than English make multicultural education imperative in the 21st century. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated that people of color made up 28% of the nation"s population in 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1998). The census predicted that their numbers would grow to 38% of the nation"s population in 2025 and 47% in 2050. American classrooms are experiencing the largest influx of immigrant stu dents since the beginning of the 20th century. About a million immigrants are making the United States their home each year (Martin & Midgley, 1999). More than 7.5 million legal immigrants settled in the United States between 1991 and 1998, most emigrating from nations in Latin America and Asia (Riche, 2000). A large but undetermined number of undocumented immigrants also enter the United States each year. The influence of an increasingly ethnically diverse population on the nation"s schools, colleges, and universities is and will con tinue to be enormous. In 1998, 34.9% of the students enrolled in U.S. public schools were stu dents of color; this percentage is increasing each year, primarily because of the growth in the percentage of Latino students (Martinez & Curry, 1999). In some of the nation"s largest cities and metropolitan areas, such as Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., New York, Seattle, and San Francisco, half or more of the public school students are students of color. During the 1998 1999 school year, students of color made up 63.1% of the student population in the public schools of California, the nation"s most populous state (California State Depart ment of Education, 2000). Language diversity is also increasing among the nation"s student popula tion. In 1990, sixteen percent of school age youth lived in homes in which English was not the first language (U.S. Census Bureau, 1998). Most teachers now in the classroom and in teacher education programs are likely to have students from diverse ethnic, racial, and language groups in their classrooms during their careers. This is true for both inner city and suburban teachers. An important goal of multicultural education is to improve race relations and to help all students acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to participate in cross cultural interactions and in personal, social, and civic action that will help make our nation more democratic and just. Multicultural education is consequently as important for middle class White suburban students as it is vii
viiiSeries Foreword for students of color who live in the inner city. Multicultural education fosters the public good and the overarching goals of the commonwealth. The major purpose of the Multicultural Education Series is to provide pre service educators, practicing educators, graduate students, scholars, and policy makers with an interrelated and comprehensive set of books that summarizes and analyzes important research, theory, and practice related to the education of ethnic, racial, cultural, and language groups in the United States as well as the education of mainstream students about diversity. The books in the Series pro vide research, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the behaviors and learning characteristics of students of color, language minority students, and low income students. They also provide knowledge about ways to improve aca demic achievement and race relations in educational settings. The definition of multicultural education in theHandbook of Research on Multicultural Education(Banks & Banks, 2001) is used in the Series: Multicul tural education is a field of study designed to increase educational equity for all students that incorporates, for this purpose, content, concepts, principles, theo ries, and paradigms from history, the social and behavioral sciences, and particu larly from ethnic studies and women studies" (p. xii). In the Series, as in the Handbook, multicultural education is considered a metadiscipline." The dimensions of multicultural education, developed by Banks (2001) and described in theHandbook of Research on Multicultural Education, provide the conceptual framework for the development of the books in the Series. They are content integration, the knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, an equity pedagogy, and an empowering school culture and social structure. To implement multicultural education effectively, teachers and administrators must attend to each of these five dimensions. They should use content from diverse groups when teaching concepts and skills, help students to understand how knowledge in the various disciplines is constructed, help students to develop positive intergroup attitudes and behaviors, and modify their teaching strategies so that students from different racial, cultural, language, and social class groups will experience equal educational opportunities. The total environment and cul ture of the school must also be transformed so that students from diverse groups will experience equal status in the culture and life of the school. Although the five dimensions of multicultural education are highly interre lated, each requires deliberate attention and focus. Each book in the series fo cuses on one or more of the dimensions, although each book deals with all of them to some extent because of the highly interrelated characteristics of the dimensions. This informative and compassionate book is timely and significant. Re search indicates that the quality of the teacher is a major factor in the academic and social achievement of students (Darling Hammond, 1997) and that the ra cial, ethnic, cultural, and language gap between students and teachers in U.S.
Series Forewordix schools is wide and increasing. In 1996, 90.7% of the nation"s teachers were White, and almost three quarters were female (National Education Association, 1997). A number of social, political, and economic forces are having adverse ef fects on the preparation of effective teachers for the nation"s ethnically, cultur ally, and linguistically diverse schools (Cochran Smith & Fries, 2001). Among the most pernicious of these forces are the push for programs that prepare teach ers quickly and the widespread high stakes testing of teachers and students (Heubert & Hauser, 1999). Vavrus, using critical race theory as a foundation (Ladson Billings, 1999), describes why a narrow, technical education of teachers cannot prepare the kind of critical, reflective, and democratic teachers needed to prepare students to function as effective citizens in our diverse nation and world. He envisions and describes a liberating and transformative teacher education program that will prepare teachers who are culturally responsive, antiracist, and who can help close the achievement gap between mainstream students and students who are marginalized within U.S. schools and society. Vavrus presents a transformative vision for teacher education that shares important characteristics with the dream of equity and social justice described by Lillian Smith (1994/1949) in her classic bookKillers of the Dream. Smith identifies several killers of the dream, forces that prevent the realization of eq uity and social justice. She describes why it is easiest to identify killers of the dream who are outsiders. In the case of teacher education, proponents of testing and quick teacher education programs come easily to mind. However, as Smith perceptively points out, identifying the killers within us is a difficult and painful but liberating and transformative experience. Vavrus"s book will help teacher educators to identify and disrupt the killers of the dream of equity and social justice within the teaching profession and to take thoughtful and practical action to realize this dream. James A. Banks Series Editor REFERENCES Banks, J.A. (2001). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M. Banks (Eds.),Handbook of research on multicul tural education(pp. 3 24). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Banks, J.A., & Banks, C.A.M. (Eds.). (2001).Handbook of research on multicultural education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. California State Department of Education. (2000). . Available: http://data1. cde.ca.gov/dataquest