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NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS Wide, Local and Personal Area Communications
Name: NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS Wide, Local and Personal Area Communications
Pages: 641
Year: 2009
Language: English
File Size: 12.37 MB
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This edition first published 2009 #2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Registered office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com. The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Pahlavan, Kaveh, 1951 Networking fundamentals : wide, local, and personal area communications / Kaveh Pahlavan. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978 0 470 99289 0 (cloth) ISBN 978 0 470 99290 6 (pbk.) 1. Computer networks. I. Title. TK5105.5.P343 2009 004.6 dc22 2009004131 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 9780470992890 (H/B) 9780470992906 (PBK) Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Thomson Digital, Noida, India. Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe, Chippenham, UK


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CONTENTS About the Authors xiii Preface xv 1 Introduction to Information Networks 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Elements of Information Networks 3 1.1.2 Chronology of Information Networks 5 1.1.3 Standards Organizations for Information Networking 7 1.1.4 Evolution of Long Haul Multiplexing Standards 10 1.2 Evolution of Wide Area Networks 13 1.2.1 Evolution of the Public Switched Telephone Network 14 1.2.2 Emergence of the Internet 15 1.2.3 HFC Infrastructure for Cable TV 17 1.2.4 Evolution of Cellular Telephone Networks 17 1.3 Evolution of Local Networks 18 1.3.1 Evolution of Local Access to Public Switched Telephone Network 19 1.3.2 Evolution of the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 21 1.3.3 Evolution of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network 22 1.3.4 Internet Access to Home and IEEE 802.16 24 1.3.5 Evolution of IEEE 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Networks 28 1.4 Structure of the Book 30 Questions 31 Project 1 32 PART ONE: FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSMISSION AND ACCESS 33 2 Characteristics of the Medium 35 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 Guided Media 36 2.2.1 Twisted Pair 38 v


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2.2.2 Coaxial Cables 42 2.2.3 Optical Fiber 45 2.3 Wireless Media 48 2.3.1 Radio Propagation Mechanisms 49 2.3.2 Path Loss Modeling and Signal Coverage 50 2.3.3 Path Loss Models for Indoor Areas 56 2.3.4 Path Loss Models for Outdoor Areas 60 2.3.5 Effects of Multipath and Doppler 62 2.3.6 Emerging Channel Models 68 Questions 72 Problems 73 Project 1: Simulation of Multipath Fading 77 Project 2: The RSS in IEEE 802.11 78 Project 3: Coverage and Data Rate Performance of the IEEE 802.11B/G WLANs 79 3 Fundamentals of Physical Layer Transmission 83 3.1 Information Transmission 83 3.1.1 Wired and Wireless Transmission 84 3.1.2 Baseband Transmission 87 3.2 Transmission Techniques and Signal Constellation 89 3.2.1 Multisymbol Digital Communications 90 3.2.2 Signal Constellation in Digital Communications 91 3.2.3 Two Dimensional Signal Constellations 94 3.2.4 Channel Capacity 100 3.3 Performance of the Physical Layer 102 3.3.1 Effects of Fading on Performance over Wireless Channels 105 3.3.2 Diversity Techniques 107 3.4 Wideband Modems 109 3.4.1 Spread Spectrum Transmissions 110 3.4.2 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 115 3.4.3 Space Time Coding 117 3.4.4 Capacity Multiple Input Multiple Output Antenna Systems 118 Questions 119 Problems 120 Projects 123 4 Coding and Reliable Packet Transmission 125 4.1 Introduction 125 4.2 Source Coding and Framing Techniques 127 4.2.1 Information Source and Coding 127 4.2.2 Framing Techniques 130 4.3 FEC Coding 132 4.3.1 Fundamentals of Coding 132 4.3.2 Block Codes 136 4.3.3 Convolutional Codes 141 4.3.4 Codes for Manipulating Data 145 viCONTENTS


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4.4 Coding for Spread Spectrum and Code Division Multiple Access Systems 147 4.4.1 Pseudo Noise Codes 148 4.4.2M ary Orthogonal Codes 149 4.5 ARQ Schemes 151 4.5.1 Stop and Wait 151 4.5.2 Go Back N153 4.5.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request 153 4.5.4 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request 154 4.6 Flow Control Protocols 155 4.6.1 Stop and Wait 156 4.6.2 Sliding Window 158 Questions 159 Problems 159 5 Medium Access Methods 165 5.1 Introduction 165 5.2 Centralized Assigned Access Schemes 167 5.2.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access 168 5.2.2 Time Division Multiple Access 171 5.2.3 Code Division Multiple Access 174 5.2.4 Comparison of Code , Time , and Frequency Division Multiple Access 177 5.2.5 Performance of Assigned Access Methods 180 5.3 Distributed Random Access Schemes 184 5.3.1 Random Access Methods for Data Services 184 5.3.2 Access Methods for Local Area Networks 191 5.3.3 Performance of Random Access Methods 196 5.4 Integration of Voice and Data Traffic 205 5.4.1 Access Methods for Integrated Services 205 5.4.2 Data Integration in Voice Oriented Networks 205 5.4.3 Voice Integration into Data Oriented Networks 211 Questions 217 Problems 218 Projects 222 PART TWO: WIDE AREA NETWORKS 225 6 The Internet 227 6.1 Introduction: Internet Infrastructure 227 6.1.1 Fundamentals of Packet Forwarding 229 6.2 Addressing 230 6.2.1 ISDN Addressing in Connection Based PSTN 231 6.2.2 MAC Addressing in Connectionless Local Area Networks 233 6.2.3 IP Addressing in the Connectionless Internet 235 CONTENTSvii


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6.3 Quality of Service 239 6.3.1 Quality of Service in Connection Based Networks 240 6.3.2 Quality of Service in Connectionless Networks 241 6.4 Bridges 242 6.4.1 Standardization and Bridges 244 6.4.2 IEEE 802.1D Transparent Bridges 244 6.4.3 The Spanning Tree Algorithm 246 6.4.4 IEEE 802.5 Source Routing Bridging 250 6.4.5 IEEE 802.1Q Virtual Local Area Network 250 6.5 Switches 251 6.5.1 Circuit Switching in Public Switched Telephone Network 252 6.5.2 Integrated Service Data Network Switching 252 6.5.3 Packet Switching over Public Switched Telephone Network 253 6.5.4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode 254 6.6 Routers 260 6.6.1 Types of Router 262 6.6.2 Network Protocols for Routers 264 6.6.3 Routing Algorithms 269 6.6.4 Multiprotocol Label Switching 275 Questions 277 Problems 278 Project 1: Client Server Programming 280 7 Cellular Networks 281 7.1 Introduction 282 7.1.1 The Cellular Concept 282 7.1.2 Cellular Hierarchy 285 7.2 General Architecture of a Cellular Network 286 7.2.1 Mobile Stations 288 7.2.2 The Base Station Subsystem 288 7.2.3 The Network and Switching Subsystem 289 7.3 Mechanisms to Support a Mobile Environment 290 7.3.1 Registration 290 7.3.2 Call Establishment 291 7.3.3 Handoff 293 7.3.4 Security 295 7.4 Protocol Stack in Cellular Networks 297 7.4.1 Layer 1: Physical Layer 298 7.4.2 Layer 2: Data Link Layer 299 7.4.3 Layer 3: Networking Layer 300 7.5 Physical Layer in TDMA Air Interface 302 7.5.1 Modulation Technique 302 7.5.2 Power and Power Control 304 7.5.3 Physical Packet Bursts 304 viiiCONTENTS


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7.6 Physical Layer in CDMA Air Interface 310 7.6.1 CDMA Forward Channels 310 7.6.2 CDMA Reverse Channels 315 7.6.3 Packet and Frame Formats in a Typical CDMA Network 317 7.6.4 Other Variations in CDMA Air Interface 319 7.7 Achieving Higher Data Rates in Cellular Networks 320 7.7.1 Changes in Reference Architecture to Connect to Internet 321 7.7.2 How to Achieve High Data Rates 322 7.8 Deployment of Cellular Networks 325 7.8.1 Cell Fundamentals and Frequency Reuse 325 7.8.2 Capacity Expansion Techniques for Frequency /Time Division Multiple Access Systems 330 7.8.3 Network Planning for Code Division Multiple Access Systems 335 Questions 337 Problems 338 PART THREE: LOCAL AND PERSONAL AREA NETWORKS 343 8 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 345 8.1 Introduction 345 8.2 Legacy Ethernet 349 8.2.1 The Packet Format and the Physical Layer 351 8.2.2 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection for the Medium Access Control Layer 352 8.2.3 Medium Access Control Performance 355 8.2.4 Alternatives to Legacy Ethernet 358 8.2.5 Early Enhancements to Legacy Ethernet 359 8.3 Evolution of the Physical Layer 361 8.3.1 Fast Ethernet at 100 Mb/s 361 8.3.2 Alternative for Fast Ethernet 368 8.3.3 Gigabit Ethernet 370 8.3.4 10 Gb/s Ethernet and Beyond 374 8.4 Emergence of Additional Features for Ethernet 379 8.4.1 Frame Format for the Virtual Local Area Network 379 8.4.2 Full Duplex Operation 381 8.4.3 PAUSE Frames 382 8.4.4 Link Aggregation 384 Questions 385 Problems 386 9 IEEE Wireless Local Area Network Standards 389 9.1 Introduction 389 9.1.1 Early Experiences 390 9.1.2 Emergence of Unlicensed Bands 391 CONTENTSix


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9.1.3 Products, Bands, and Standards 392 9.1.4 Shift in Marketing Strategy 393 9.2 IEEE 802.11 and WLANs 395 9.2.1 Overview of IEEE 802.11 396 9.2.2 IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network Operations 398 9.2.3 The IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control Layer 402 9.2.4 The Physical Layer 410 9.2.5 Deployment of Wireless Local Area Networks 419 9.2.6 Security Issues and Implementation in IEEE 802.11 425 9.2.7 Wireless Local Area Network Standards and 802.11 Standards Activities 428 9.3 IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) 430 9.3.1 General Architecture 432 9.3.2 Physical Layer 433 9.3.3 Medium Access Control Layer of WiMAX 434 Questions 435 Problems 436 Projects 441 10 IEEE 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network 443 10.1 Introduction 443 10.1.1 IEEE 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network Standardization Series 444 10.2 IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth 445 10.2.1 Overall Architecture 447 10.2.2 Protocol Stack 448 10.2.3 Physical Connection 450 10.2.4 Medium Access Control Mechanism 452 10.2.5 Frame Formats 452 10.2.6 Connection Management 458 10.2.7 Security 460 10.3 Interference between Bluetooth and 802.11 460 10.3.1 Interference Range 461 10.3.2 Probability of Interference 465 10.3.3 Empirical Results 468 10.4 IEEE 802.15.3A Ultra Wideband Wireless Personal Area Networks 470 10.4.1 Direct Sequence Ultra Wideband 470 10.4.2 Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 474 10.5 IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee 477 10.5.1 Overall Architecture 478 10.5.2 Protocol Stack 479 10.5.3 Medium Access Control Layer 480 10.5.4 Physical Layer 481 xCONTENTS


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