Download Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Environmental Chemistry PDF

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Environmental Chemistry
Name: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Environmental Chemistry
Author: mark a. nanny
Pages: 341
Year: 1997
Language: English
File Size: 16.98 MB
Downloads: 0
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Oxford University Press Oxfor d Ne w Yor k Athen s Aucklan d Bangko k Bogot a Bomba y Bueno s Aire s Calcutt a Cap e Tow n Da r e s Salaa m Delh i Florenc e Hon g Kon g Istanbu l Karachi Kual a Lumpu r Madra s Madri d Melbourn e Mexic o Cit y Nairob i Pari s Singapor e Taipe i Toky o Toront o an d associate d companie s i n Berli n Ibada n Copyrigh t 199 7 b y Oxfor d Universit y Pres , Inc . Publishe d b y Oxfor d Universit y Press , Inc . 19 8 Madiso n Avenue , Ne w York , Ne w Yor k 1001 6 Oxfor d i s a registere d trademar k o f Oxfor d Universit y Pres s Al l right s reserved. N o par t o f thi s publicatio n ma y b e reproduced , store d i n a retrieva l system , o r transmitted , i n an y for m o r b y a n means , electronic , mechanical , photocopying , recording , o r otherwise , withou t th e prio r permissio n o f Oxfor d Universit y Press . Librar y o f Congres s Cataloging in Publicatio n Dat a Nanny , Mar k A . Nuclea r magneti c resonanc e spectroscop y i n environmenta l chemistr y edite d b y Mar k A . Nanny , Roge r A . Minear , Jerr y A . Leenheer . p . cm . Include s bibliographica l reference s an d index . ISB N 0 19 509751 3 1 . Environmenta l chemistry . 2 . Nuclea r magneti c resonanc e spectroscopy . I . Minear , R . A . II . Leenheer , J . A . III . Title . TD193 N3 6 199 7 628 dc2 0 95 4721 5 13579864 2 Printe d i n th e Unite d State s o f Americ a o n acid fre e pape r


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Preface Nuclea r magneti c resonanc e (NMR ) spectroscop y ha s bee n a n importan t analytica l an d qualitativ e too l i n chemistry , materia l science , an d organi c geochemistr y fo r quit e som e time , an d no w i s becomin g recognize d a s a valuabl e too l i n environmenta l scienc e an d technology . Becaus e i t i s a non destructiv e an d element specifi c probe , i t i s usefu l fo r examinin g a myria d o f environmenta l reaction s occurrin g i n a variet y o f comple x an d heterogeneou s matrices . Th e inten t o f thi s boo k i s t o sho w ho w NM R i s becomin g suc h a usefu l tool , an d ho w i t i s bein g applie d t o a wid e variet y o f environmenta l scienc e an d technolog y topics . Researc h involvin g numerou s NMR activ e nucle i ( L H , 2 H , 13 C , 15 N , 19 F , 23 Na , 27 A1 , 31 P , an d 133 Cs ) i n highl y hetero geneou s an d comple x sample s o f environmenta l significanc e i s presented . Als o include d i s a wealt h o f informatio n pertainin g t o sampl e preparation , instrumenta l techniques , an d dat a interpretation . A majo r reaso n wh y NM R ha s no t bee n considere d usefu l fo r environ menta l researc h i s tha t NM R spectroscop y i s no t sensitiv e enoug h fo r mos t o f th e chemica l concentration s tha t occu r i n man y environmenta l reactions . I n addition , environmenta l reaction s usuall y occu r i n heterogeneou s matrice s whic h ofte n hinde r an d reduc e th e resolutio n an d sensitivit y o f NM R spectro scopy . Likewise , man y isolatio n an d concentratio n method s use d t o over com e lo w concentration s ar e no t feasibl e o r introduc e unacceptabl e sampl e alterations . Despit e th e fac t tha t thes e problem s stil l exis t an d i n man y instance s ar e difficul t t o overcome , th e introductio n o f stronge r magnets , th e developmen t o f ne w an d bette r softwar e an d hardware , ne w sampl e pro cessin g an d experimenta l methods , an d mos t importantly , increase d accessi bilit y t o NM R instrumentatio n hav e permitte d environmenta l NM R studie s t o gai n a foothol d an d grow . Th e researc h presented i n thi s boo k illustrate s ho w thes e problem s hav e bee n addresse d an d ho w th e advance s liste d abov e


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VI PREFACE hav e furthere d environmenta l studies . Thi s boo k provide s a surve y o f th e curren t applicatio n o f NM R t o researc h problem s i n environmenta l scienc e an d technology , an d als o demonstrate s th e diversit y an d breadt h o f environ menta l researc h problem s tha t NM R spectroscop y ca n address . Th e boo k i s divide d int o thre e parts , o f whic h th e first , o n Contaminan t Interactions , present s NM R researc h examinin g interaction s o f variou s mole cules , suc h a s pollutant s wit h humi c materials . Th e secon d part , Solutio n an d Condense d Phas e Characterization , present s studie s examinin g th e chemistr y o f variou s environmentall y importan t specie s i n a variet y o f phases : solution , colloidal , an d condense d phase . Nutrien t an d Natura l Organi c Matte r Cyclin g i n th e Environment , th e fina l part , include s researc h explorin g phos phoru s an d nitroge n cyclin g i n th e environment , i n additio n t o ne w researc h involvin g th e characterizatio n o f natura l organi c carbo n material , especiall y wit h difficul t samples , i.e. , low carbo n sediments . T o complemen t eac h part , a n overvie w chapte r i s included , providin g a discussio n a s t o wh y an d ho w NM R spectroscop y ha s advance d researc h i n th e area s concerned . I n addition , a n introductor y chapte r i s include d tha t review s th e basi c principle s o f solutio n an d solid stat e NM R spectroscop y fo r thos e unfamilia r wit h NMR . Finally , th e futur e need s an d direction s o f NM R researc h i n environmenta l scienc e an d technolog y ar e presente d i n th e closin g chapter , whic h result s fro m a pane l discussio n involvin g severa l o f th e chapte r authors . I n thi s chapter , the y recommen d area s i n whic h environ menta l NM R spectroscop y ca n b e th e mos t advantageou s techniqu e and , i n addition , discus s th e difficultie s a n environmenta l scientis t face s i n imple mentin g NM R i n a researc h project . Wit h it s focu s o n NM R studie s i n environmenta l research , i t i s hope d tha t thi s boo k wil l b e o f us e t o NM R spectroscopist s intereste d i n analyzing environmenta l samples , an d requirin g a basi c bod y o f knowledg e regardin g spectroscop y o f environmenta l samples . Likewise , i t i s hope d tha t environ menta l scientist s wil l us e thi s boo k a s a guid e t o incorporatin g NM R int o thei r research . Hopefully , i t wil l serv e a s a benchmar k fo r curren t environ menta l NM R research , a s wel l a s a stepping ston e t o spu r futur e wor k i n th e sam e area . M.A. N R.A. M J.A. L


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Viii CONTENTS 5 . Adsorptio n Isotherm s an d 13 C Solid stat e NM R Stud y o f Hazardou s Organi c Compound s Sorbe d o n Coa l Fl y As h D . A . NETZEL , F . P . MIKNIS , D . C . LANE , J . F . ROVANI , J . D . COX , &J . A . CLAR K 9 1 Solution and Condensed Phase Characterization 6. Solutio n and Condense d Phas e Characterizatio n R . A . MINEA R & M . A . NANN Y 12 3 7 . NM R Studie s o f th e Reactio n o f Amin o Acid s wit h Aqueou s Chlorin e F . E . SCULLY , JR. , B . CONYERS , E . FORRER , & E . P . LOCK E 13 0 8 . Comparativ e Result s o f 27 A 1 NM R Spectrometri c an d Perro n Colorimetri c Analyse s o f Hydroxyaluminu m Hydrolysi s Product s i n Aged , Mildl y Acidic , Aqueou s System s D . V . VIVIT , K . A . THORN , & J . D . HE M 14 0 9 . 27 A 1 NM R Stud y o f th e Hydrolysi s an d Condensatio n o f Organicall y Complexe d Aluminu m F . THOMAS , A . MASION , J . Y . BOTTERO , & P . TEKEL Y 16 1 10 . Catio n an d Wate r Interaction s i n th e Interlamella e o f a Smectit e Cla y A . LABOURIAU , C . T . JOHNSTON , & W . L . EAR L 18 1 11 . 2 H NMR and Gel Formatio n of the Ultrafin e Solid s Fractio n Associate d wit h th e Athabasc a Oi l Sand s Fin e Tail s J . A . RIPMEESTER , L . S . KOTLYAR , B . D . SPARKS , & R . SCHUTT E 19 8 Nutrient and Natural Organic Matter Cycling in the Environment 12 . Characterizatio n o f Natura l Organi c Matte r b y Nuclea r Magneti c Resonanc e Spectroscop y J . A . LEENHEE R 21 3 13 . 31 P FT NM R o f Concentrate d Lak e Wate r Sample s M . A . NANN Y & R . A . MINEA R 22 1


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