WIT Transactions on Engineering Sciences Editorial Board Transactions Editor Carlos Brebbia Wessex Institute of Technology Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst Southampton SO40 7AA, UK Email: [email protected] B Alzahabi Kettering University USA A G Atkins University of Reading UK A F M Azevedo University of Porto Portugal R Belmans Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium E Blums Latvian Academy of Sciences Latvia F G Buchholz Universitat Gesanthochschule Paderborn Germany W Cantwell Liverpool University UK S K Chakrabarti Offshore Structure Analysis USA H Choi Kangnung National University Korea L De Biase University of Milan Italy R de Borst Delft University of Technology Netherlands G De Mey Ghent State University Belgium M Domaszewski Universite de Technologie de Belfort Montbeliard FranceB. Abersek University of Maribor Slovenia K S Al Jabri Sultan Qaboos University Oman J A C Ambrosio IDMEC Portugal H Azegami Toyohashi University of Technology Japan G Belingardi Politecnico di Torino Italy S K Bhattacharyya Indian Institute of Technology India A R Bretones University of Granada Spain J Byrne University of Portsmouth UK D J Cartwright Bucknell University USA A Chakrabarti Indian Institute of Science India J J Connor Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA L Debnath University of Texas Pan American USA S del Giudice University of Udine Italy
I Doltsinis University of Stuttgart Germany J Dominguez University of Seville Spain J P du Plessis University of Stellenbosch South Africa M E M El Sayed Kettering University USA M Faghri University of Rhode Island USA C J Gantes National Technical University of Athens Greece R Gomez Martin University of Granada Spain R H J Grimshaw Loughborough University UK R Grundmann Technische Universitat Dresden Germany J M Hale University of Newcastle UK L Haydock Newage International Limited UK C Herman John Hopkins University USA M Y Hussaini Florida State University USA D B Ingham The University of Leeds UK Y Jaluria Rutgers University USA D R H Jones University of Cambridge UK S Kim University of Wisconsin Madison USA A S Kobayashi University of Washington USA S Kotake University of Tokyo JapanW Dover University College London UK K M Elawadly Alexandria University Egypt F Erdogan Lehigh University USA H J S Fernando Arizona State University USA E E Gdoutos Democritus University of Thrace Greece D Goulias University of Maryland USA D Gross Technische Hochschule Darmstadt Germany R C Gupta National University of Singapore, Singapore K Hameyer Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium P J Heggs UMIST UK D A Hills University of Oxford UK T H Hyde University of Nottingham UK N Ishikawa National Defence Academy Japan N Jones The University of Liverpool UK T Katayama Doshisha University Japan E Kita Nagoya University Japan A Konrad University of Toronto Canada T Krauthammer Penn State University USA F Lattarulo Politecnico di Bari Italy
M Langseth Norwegian University of Science and Technology Norway S Lomov Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium G Manara University of Pisa Italy H A Mang Technische Universitat Wien Austria A C Mendes Univ. de Beira Interior Portugal A Miyamoto Yamaguchi University Japan G Molinari University of Genoa Italy D B Murray Trinity College Dublin Ireland S I Nishida Saga University Japan B Notaros University of Massachusetts USA M Ohkusu Kyushu University Japan P H Oosthuizen Queens University Canada G Pelosi University of Florence Italy H Pina Instituto Superior Tecnico Portugal L P Pook University College London UK D Prandle Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory UK F Rachidi Group Switzerland K R Rajagopal Texas A & M University USA D N Riahi University of Illinios Urbana USAY W Mai University of Sydney Australia B N Mandal Indian Statistical Institute India T Matsui Nagoya University Japan R A W Mines The University of Liverpool UK T Miyoshi Kobe University Japan T B Moodie University of Alberta Canada D Necsulescu University of Ottawa Canada H Nisitani Kyushu Sangyo University Japan P O'Donoghue University College Dublin Ireland K Onishi Ibaraki University Japan E Outa Waseda University Japan W Perrie Bedford Institute of Oceanography Canada D Poljak University of Split Croatia H Power University of Nottingham UK I S Putra Institute of Technology Bandung Indonesia M Rahman Dalhousie University Canada T Rang Tallinn Technical University Estonia B Ribas Spanish National Centre for Environmental Health Spain W Roetzel Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg Germany
K Richter Graz University of Technology Austria V Roje University of Split Croatia H Ryssel Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltungen Germany A Savini Universita de Pavia Italy B Scholtes Universitaet of Kassel Germany G C Sih Lehigh University USA P Skerget University of Maribor Slovenia A C M Sousa University of New Brunswick Canada C L Tan Carleton University Canada A Terranova Politecnico di Milano Italy S Tkachenko Otto von Guericke University Germany E Van den Bulck Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium R Verhoeven Ghent University Belgium B Weiss University of Vienna Austria T X Yu Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Hong Kong M Zamir The University of Western Ontario CanadaS Russenchuck Magnet Group Switzerland B Sarler Nova Gorica Polytechnic Slovenia R Schmidt RWTH Aachen Germany A P S Selvadurai McGill University Canada L C Simoes University of Coimbra Portugal J Sladek Slovak Academy of Sciences Slovakia D B Spalding CHAM UK G E Swaters University of Alberta Canada J Szmyd University of Mining and Metallurgy Poland S Tanimura Aichi University of Technology Japan A G Tijhuis Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherlands I Tsukrov University of New Hampshire USA P Vas University of Aberdeen UK S Walker Imperial College UK S Yanniotis Agricultural University of Athens Greece K Zakrzewski Politechnika Lodzka Poland
Editors: A.A. Mammoli University of New Mexico, USA C.A. Brebbia Wessex Institute of Technology, UK Published by WIT Press Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton, SO40 7AA, UK Tel: 44 (0) 238 029 3223; Fax: 44 (0) 238 029 2853 E Mail: [email protected] http://www.witpress.com For USA, Canada and Mexico Computational Mechanics Inc 25 Bridge Street, Billerica, MA 01821, USA Tel: 978 667 5841; Fax: 978 667 7582 E Mail: [email protected] http://www.witpress.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A Catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978 1 84564 079 8 ISSN: 1746 4471 (print) ISSN: 1743 3533 (on line) The texts of the papers in this volume were set individually by the authors or under their supervision. Only minor corrections to the text may have been carried out by the publisher. No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher, the Editors and Authors for any injury and/ or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or i deas contained in the material herein. WIT Press 2007 Printed in Great Britain by Athenaeum Press Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, sto red in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanic al, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Pub lisher.
Preface Multiphase flow remains one of the unsolved problems in fluid mechanics. There are many factors which make it difficult to deal with such flows. First, they are very diverse in nature, and as a consequence the laws governing them are simi larly varied. In addition, there are generally several length scales at play, and they are in many cases fully coupled. Although constitutive equations and simulation methods for treating simp le 'model' flows have been developed with partial success, it is stil l extremely difficult to develop equations which describe realistic multiphase flows at the ma croscopic scale, and even when such models are developed, it is difficult to calib rate them by experiment or simulation. However, as large scale computation becomes more prevalent, it is becoming possible to dissect various features of a flow which would be difficult to examine experimentally, increasing our understanding of the important features that must be treated in a model. For example, it is possible to characterize spatial distributions of components in great detail by simulation, while by experiment one can only obtain overall features. It has become apparent that flow i nduced structure must be treated by a realistic constitutive model. Close range interactions between dispersed phase particles are also important in determining larg e scale flow behavior. It remains to be seen whether large scale simulation will continue to enable constitutive modelling, as has traditionally been the case, or whether s imulation will become the only step in the treatment of multiphase flow problems, as co mputational power continues to increase and computational techniques become more eff icient. Compl e menting the interesting mathematical and numerical problems that multiphase flows pose is an equally interesting array of real life probl ems which are characterized by multiphase flow: groundwater transport, river and sea b ed sedimentation, boiling and condensation, sprays and aerosols, combustion processes in power generation equipment, and many others. This conference is all inclusive, representing a very broad spectru m of the many features of multiphase flows. Papers in the proceedings cover several of the mathematical and numerical aspects of multiphase flows, as well as many practical applications. Because of the diversity of papers, we are confident that many fruitful interactions between researchers will occur as a result of this meeting. As always, we would like to thank the contributors for their excellent w ork and the scientific advisory committee for their help with the review and sel ection process. The Editors Bologna, Italy 2007