Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture Landscape Architecture and Art, Volume 5, Number 5 2 EDITOR IN CHIEF Aija , Dr. arch., Professor, Latvia University of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia EDITORIAL BOARD ins, Dr. arch., Professor, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia Maria Ignatieva, Dr. phil., Professor, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden Karsten Jorgensen, Dr. scient., Professor, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway , Dr. habil. arch., Professor, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia Juhan Maiste, Dr. art., Professor, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia , Dr. arch., Assoc. Professor, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania Valeriy Nefedov, Dr. arch., Professor, St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, St. Petersburg, Russia Thomas Oyen, Professor, Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences, Neubrandenburg, Germany Gintaras Stauskis, PhD arch., Assoc. Professor, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania Ivars Strautmanis, Dr. habil. arch., Professor, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia Oj , Dr. habil. art., Professor, Art Academy of Latvia, Riga, Latvia Sandra Treija, Dr. arch., Assoc. Professor, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia Daiga Zigmunde, Dr. arch., Latvia Univeristy of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia SECRETARY AND LAYOUT DESIGNER , Dr. arch., Latvia University of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia ADDRESS OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD Faculty of Rural Engineers Latvia University of Agriculture 19 Akademijas iela, Jelgava, Latvia, LV3001 Fax: + 371 63021397 Phone: + 371 29185575 Email: [email protected] Abstracted and indexed* AGRIS; CABI PUBLISHING CAB ABSTRACTS; EBSCO Art Source (*) Attention! The data bases select the articles from the proceedings for including them in their data bases after individual qualitative examination. All scientific paper was reviewed by two independent reviewers. Every author is responsible for the quality and the information of his article. Read our scientific juornal in: http://llufb.llu.lv/Raksti/Landscape_Architecture_Art/ LATVIA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, 2014 2
Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture Landscape Architecture and Art, Volume 5, Number 5 3 INTRODUCTION 5 'S The scientific journal Landscape Architecture and Art of the Latvia University of Agriculture (LUA) continues to summarize the results of the research, obtained in the evaluation of the cultural and historical urban space, rural environment, landscape space on the Baltic Sea coast. The scientific proceedings consist of two separate sections, of which Section 1 summarizes research that affects the evaluation of the cultural and historical heritage in architecture, art and the study of the landscape space of the historic parks. The publications deal with the synthesis of techniques and elements (graphics, painting, monumental sculpture, metal design, glass) of high aesthetic quality in interiors and the outdoor space, in studying the compositional nature of the historical solutions, the context of the elements of the contemporary modernism and construction trends in architecture and art. This is true for form creation, color, scale, material and structure. In the publications, the findings of the researchers of the science of art and architecture about the synthesis of the values of the cultural and historical environment over time again clearly demonstrate that in the national cultural policy, it is of tremendous importance for the development of the society's spiritual values. In particular, it should be noted that the year 2014 passes in the Culture sign for Latvia, so laying a clearly recognizable character line of the national identity on the global scale. Undeniably, this is also relevant to the study of the highly professional, architecturally artistic design of the construction volume of the National Library and its importance in the perception of the silhouette of the left bank of the Daugava River. In Section 2, the scientific research covers the study of the coastal marine landscapes, the issues of regeneration of the urban construction space and the road landscape space. The publications reflect the transformation processes of certain cultural and historical environment and changes, brought by the country's political and economic developments, the agrarian land reform in th century, 20th century and the administrative and territorial conditions at the early stage of the 21st century. The research and searches within the PhD theses, the findings of the new researchers are important contributions for further development of the science of architecture in the search of a closer and more focused cooperation in the international meaning, as the next half year Presidency of Latvia as a country of the European Union also imposes a greater responsibility in the presentation of the industry of the science of architecture and art at the level of the cross border cooperation. ] L Q W Q L V N D L V X U Q O V Landscape Architecture and Art turpina apkopojumu L ] Y U W M R W J D Q N X O W U Y V W X U L V N R S L O V W W H O S X J D Q O D X N X Y L G L J D Q % D O W L M D V M U D V S L H N U D V W H V D L Q D Y W H O S X = L Q W Q L V N R U D N V W X N U M X P V Y H L G R G L Y D V D W V H Y L D V Q R G D D V Q R N X U P oti N D V V N D U N X O W U Y V W X U L V N P D Q W R M X P D ( a, S W R W J D Q Y V W X U L V N R U L V L Q M X P X N R P S R ] L F L R Q O R U D N V W X U X J D Q P V G L H Q X P R G H U Q L V P D H O H P H Q W X N R Q W H N V W X X Q E Y Q L H F E D V W H Q G H Q F H V D U K L W H N W U mat D U K L W H N W U D V ] L Q W Q H V S W Q L H N X D W ] L D V S D U N X O W U Y V W X U L V N V Y L G H V Y U W E X V L Q W ] L laika S R O L W L N W D L L U P L O ] J D Q R ] P H V D E L H G U E D V J D U J R Y U W E X D W W V W E S D L L U M S L H P L Q N D gads Latvijai aizrit L H Y H O N R W V N D L G U X Q D F L R Q O V L G H Q W L W W H V D W S D ] V W D P E D V U D N V W X U O Q L M X 1 H Q R O L H G ] D P L D S W Y H U M U D V S L H N U D V W H V D L Q D Y X S L O V W E Y Q L H F L V N V W H O S D V S U R E O H P W L N X O D X N X N X O W U Y L G H V X Q F H X D L Q D Y W H O S D V L ] S W L 3 X E O L N F L M D V D W V S R J X R Q R W H L N W D V N X O W U Y V W X U L V N V Y L G H V W U D Q V I R U P F L M D V S U R F H V X V X Q S U P D L D V N R L H Q H V Y D O V W V S R O L W L V N L H N R Q R P L V N V D W W V W E D V W H Q G H Q F H V D J U U V ] H P H V U H I R U P D 20. gs. 20. lnis 20. gs. 50.60. Q R V D F M X P L S U R P R F L M D V G D U E X L H W Y D U R V J D Q M D X Q R S W Q L H N X D W ] L Q X P R V L U V Y D U J V S L H Q H V X P V D U K L W H N W U D V ] L Q W Q H V W O N D L D W W V W E D L P H N O M R W F L H N X X Q Q R W H L N W N X V D G D U E E X V W D U S W D X W L V N Q R ] P M R Q N R D L V S X V J D G V / D W Y L M D L N S U H ] L G M R D L ( L U R S D V 6 D Y L H Q E D V Y D O V W L M X ] O L H N D U O L H O N X D W E L O G E X D U K L W H N W U D V X Q V D G D U E E D V P U R J Editor in Chief
Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture Landscape Architecture and Art, Volume 5, Number 5 4 CONTENTS The searches of synthesis of art, architecture and historical landscapes Vaiva Deveikiene The role of historical gardens in city development from private garden .................................................................... 5 New structural elements and activities in historical gardens and parks .............................. 14 The Life and Work of William Morris (18341896) .......................................................... 25 The revival of the Liepupe Manor synthesis of the values of the architectural and cultural historical environment over time .................................. 37 Aija G Study of Harmony in the Indoor / Outdoor Context of Architecture from G. Birkerts at the new building Nationl Library of Latvia ....................................... 48 The creative life and achievements of the landscape architect Alfon (19101994) ................................................................................................. 57 The evaluation of transformation process in urban, coastal and rural landscapes Cognitive aspects of Kurzeme coastal landscape identity ................................................... 63 Linda Balode Rehabilitative landscape in the urban environment ............................................................ 75 Madara Markova Development planning of church landscapes based on Latgale case study ........................ 88 The cultural histor ........................................ 94 The road landscape in Latvian laws and regulations ......................................................... 102 Thomas Oyen Comprehensive Open Space Management ........................................................................ 109
Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture Landscape Architecture and Art, Volume 5, Number 5 5 The role of historical gardens in city development from private garden to public park. Vaiva Deveikiene, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Abstract. The paper provides (1840 D Q G K L V F R O O D E R U D W R U V I U R P $ Q G U p V $ J H Q F \n V X F K D V K L V V R Q 5 H Q p $ Q G U p 1942), Jules Buyssens (18721958) and others in four manors of the noble family Tyszkiewicz in Lithuania. The French tradition of public and private parks was a good example how to create parks in Lithuanian art of parks, a writer, and an editor of the late 19th end of 19th century, in 18971899. Using the extraordinary qualities of natural landscape, including in the spatial composition natural watercourses and woods, choosing indigenous plants and implementing they own artistic had been widely praised and admired in those days. The sustainability of historical green spaces of Traku Voke and Palanga in urban structure of Vilnius City and Palanga city is analysed in this article. Sustainable development of public greenery should be exposed as an example in Lithuania as well. al Park, Public Park. Introduction Research works that were started more than 20 years ago have inspired various papers and presentations, publications and exhibitions about famous French landscape architect (18401911) (Fig. 1) in several areas in France, South America, Poland and Lithuania. All these events and publications aim showing to the public important and useful, and presenting his written and theoretical work as well as his garden creation, which still enchant our time. Nearly 200 parks and gardens still exist of the world. In Lithuania there are four parks created by E. 5 H Q p $ Q G U p 671942) and Belgian landscape architect Jules Buyssens (18721958). E. his collaborators visited Lithuania at the end of 19th century, in 18971899. Through the historical documents also plans of the parks from their journey to Lithuania and Poland in 18971899 it is known that they have been undertaking works in six parks two of them, Samostrzel and Potulice, are now within Polish borders, and four parks Palanga, Lentvaris, Traku Voke, Uzutrakis are in Lithuania . Using the extraordinary qualities of natural landscape, including in the spatial composition the natural watercourses or water bodies and woods, choosing indigenous plants and implementing their own artistic rules to earthwork gardens to create unusual compositions that had been widely praised and admired in those days in Lithuania. The aim of this paper is to review park creation d to form a strategy for conserving and developing these parks as public parks in urban structure of Vilnius City and Palanga city. The strategy has to start from recognizing all the existing features and understanding them as significant elements of E. to give new interest in the parks. Research Methods An analysis of historical iconography, written sources and previous scientific publications and comparative method are being used as well as a visual inspection of nature in situ and methods of data analysis and generalization. The study was conducted in accordance with the systematic comparative analysis. An important component of the work is the analysis of modern concepts of heritage management and adaptation of application guidelines for E. creative heritage features changes and integration in urban development conditions. The study is based on analysis of extensive biographical and bibliographical sources, previous researches and publications. The experience in developing urban environment, the harmony, aesthetics and urban sustainability and other criteria
Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture Landscape Architecture and Art, Volume 5, Number 5 6 1911) p Q p U D O are analysed in a more global context. Shaping the urban environment and landscape design principles are discussed on a basis of specific green space (parks, squares) formation and development models, comparing them with then prevailing artistic expression principles and the creative principles of E. school (office). One of the aims of this study is the apologetics of local flora (especially dendroflora) used as resources of greenery. Another aim of this study is to highlight the principles of artistic expression of the parks at the end of 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century, and their conservation and sustainability in modern conditions. adaptation in Lithuania Brief biographical notes of French landscape architect family where as a child he gained all the basic knowledge about plants. He received a successful classical education. He then joined famous internationally renowned arboriculture company, the Leroy at Angers, as a trainee. Later he went to complete his education in the National Museum of Natural History in Paris where he spent one year as a student gardener taught by botanist Joseph Decaisne. At the age of 20 he joined Parks and Promenades service in Paris. He was lucky enough to start his career at that very creative time, when many parks and gardens were being developed all around Paris within a few years, with the famous landscape architect Barillet Deschamps as a teacher . out parks and boulevards in Paris that transformed Paris into a Haussmann model modern city. His planting of the Park Buttes Chaumont became his s international competition for the design of Sefton Park, a large urban project in Liverpool, England. He went on to design numerous parks and gardens in France and across Europe including the reconstruction of private parks Weldam and Twickel in Netherlands , the transformation of the Citadel of Luxembourg into a large public garden and urban spaces, and the creation of the public garden of Monte Carlo, Monaco as a showcase for tropical plants. His garden and park design philosophy is summed up in treatise des parcs et jardins (General Treaty of the Composition of Parks and gardens), published in 1879 and re edited in 1983; 1986 (Fig. 2). E. ctive horticulturist as well. In 187576 Government of France sent him on an expedition to South America where he collected 3400 specimens including famous Anthurium andreanum and many Bromeliads. He maintained an experimental nursery and wrote numerous monographs and articles with particular
Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture Landscape Architecture and Art, Volume 5, Number 5 7 expertise on Bromeliads. A book titled Bromeliaceae Andreanae: description et histoire des et le Venezuela was published in Paris, 1889 (re editions by Big Bridge Press, Berkley CA, 1983, and by C. M. E. Editions, Paris, 1998). A review on this expedition in Columbia, Equator was published in Tour du Monde (18771883), and re published in in 1999 in Paris . In 1890 $ Q G U p Y L V L W H G 8 U X J X Dy and worked for Montevideo city planning, which transformed a capital of the Uruguay into modern city with parks, squares and boulevards . His disciple and assistant, Charles (or Carlos) Thays (18491934) went to Argentine, Buenos Aires in 1889 and was responsible for the planning of public gardens and tree lined boulevards in city, also worked as designer of gardens and parks in Montevideo and other cities, resulting in the French atmosphere, which is often noted in the cities . as appointed as the Professor of Horticultural and Landscape Architecture at the French National School of Horticulture in Versailles. design, which consisted of a formal park in immediate proximity to the palace, and then landscaping more distant areas. The distinctive harmonious placement and pleasing arrangement of artificial grottos, balustrades, waterfalls, and mountain style stone structures, employment of natural water bodies and panoramas . In 1898 ( G R X D U G $ Q G U p D Q G K L V V R Q 5 H Q p $ Q G U p 1942) were working in Poland (2 parks) and Lithuania (4 parks) making three successive journeys . In Lithuania at four manors mixed parks in Palanga, Traku Voke, Lentvaris, Uzutrakis (Fig. 3 and 4). The characteristic feature attributes of mixed or composite style: the extreme formalism of geometric gardens and extreme naturalism of scenic parks . When designing his gardens, he had in mind both their aesthetic and purely practical values. E. to the various functions and locations of the places that he was required to create or transform. French ideas to town planning and greening Modern town planning theory and practice was born in 19th century on time of the Industrial Revolution. The great industrial cities with rapid growth of population and urban or industrial facilities and utilities were in need for common urban policy and new urban planning decisions. The urban planning was influenced by many factors, not the least of which were living conditions and Fig. 3. Project of Palanga Park by E. An sustainability. The renovation of Paris by Baron Haussmann (18091891), the Haussmann Plan or a large modernization programme of city between 1853 and 1870, inspired some important architectural movements. The renovation of Paris was meant to be total. Such considerable work required many (18101878) and Jean Charles Alphand (18171891) dealt with parks and plantations in collaboration with gardeners Jean Pierre Barillet Deschamps (1824 D Q G ( G R X D U G $ Q G U p (18401911). Haussmann expanded the fundamental role of the Paris Map Services, and was in charge of drawing the new avenues and enforcing the graphic design play a more important role than . Cleaning up living areas implied not only a better air circulation but also better provision of water and better evacuation of waste. A network of large avenues and rings of boulevards was completed. The connection between great boulevards required to create squares on the same scale. The works of Haussmann team converted great squares at crossing points across the whole city. Green spaces in Paris on the east and west borders of the city, the Bois de Vincennes and the Bois de Boulogne, the Parc des
Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture Landscape Architecture and Art, Volume 5, Number 5 8 Fig. 5. The grothe in Lentvaris park, 1904. Buttes Chaumont, the Parc Monceau, and the Parc Montsouris offered citizens beautiful scenery and a place to relax and spend time in nature. In addition there were squares built in each district, and trees were planted along avenues . As already mentioned above, the great influence of French town planning and greening ideas was admitted in South American cities such as Buenos Aires, Montevideo, and others. French tradition predominates in the public spaces plazas of Buenos Aires and other cities of the La Plata . Many French town planners and landscape architects Charles (18591934) and Louis Ernest (18611903), Edouard Gautier (18551929), Charles (Carlos) Thays (18491934) instilled the achievements of a French urban park and/or green spaces tradition into La Plata cities . By transformations of the Citadel of Luxembourg and Montevideo city planning, and the placement and establishment of public parks E. proved to be a skilled urban planner. In this study a few examples from his works were chosen to illustrate his know how in urban development. Though he was able to handle all kinds of styles to cope with the necessities of the place or with the preference to the mixed style, which he considered as best corresponding to his time exigencies. A perfect example is both of the Lithuanian parks presented in this study. Plants are as essential as the composition ude and was eager to teach how to use the treasures of local nature in order to make the best of them, as well as introducing interesting plants from other using shapes and colour nuances in a very fine way for best effects. P L monuments situated in huge parks, should conform to laws of architecture and geometry, and gradually move to more distant views where the spontaneity of nature can take over this is what landscapes of the the emphasis of indigenous species or species capable of acclimatising themselves . ed to create impressive views over the most picturesque scenes of the surroundings, to create natural effects, and to contrast various methods and elements. He used water bodies or streams with ford, falls, and ripraps, areas of greenery as viewing points, gentle undulations, subtle clearings, and scenery of nature in bloom. His creations involved elaborate techniques, and made a use of the generosity of nature . constitutes a good example of the composite style: development of naturally strong contrasts, alternating picturesque and intimate scenes, framed perspectives with plant specimens, which are now reaching maturity, just as they were imagined more than 110 years ago . In all parks created by E. between the park itself and its surroundings may be observed. These parks serve as a place for relaxation for numerous visitors. The thematic and dynamic spaces unite the beauty of landscape with scenery of arc on picturesque accents (Fig. 5 and 6). Old historical parks and its infrastructure for sustainable development of the city Sustainable and balanced development in urban regeneration and incorporation of green areas and water bodies into urban structure. Some scientific concepts shape this way of thinking and planning in terms of the green and blue network or infrastructure in cities: landscape ecology, conservation of biodiversity, social (and also economic) development factors. This methodological concept
Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture Landscape Architecture and Art, Volume 5, Number 5 9 is presented and discussed in some international conferences, related to analysis of theoretical and practical aspects of ecological resources used in city planning or urban renewal process . Urban planners and developers have no doubts that urban green zone environment has value and influence attractiveness of adjacent urban quarters on the real property market. A place for green zones in the urban development territories should be found. However, this requires joint efforts of urban developers and planners as well as methodological and legal grounds. Legal basis is very important in this case. Legal Framework The Republic of Lithuania has ratified or equally approved the cultural heritage protection provisions of the UNESCO World wide Cultural and Natural Heritage Protection Convention (1972), the Convention of the European Council on the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe (Grenada, 1985), the revised European Archaeological Heritage Protection Convention (Valletta, 1992), the European Landscape Convention (Firenze, 2000), as well as some other international Conventions and Treaties, and European Directives. Development or adoption of any new legislation in the field of cultural or / and natural heritage protection and regeneration is based on the priority of the requirements stipulated in the above mentioned instruments. Today the following legal instruments directly regulate the recording, protection, usage and management of green and water bodies systems in rural and urban territories of Lithuania: The Law on Protected Areas of the Republic of Lithuania (1993; 2003). This law regulates to the regime of natural reserves, national and regional parks, and other protected areas. It is also a law on protection of landscape values. The Law on Immovable Cultural Heritage Protection of the Republic of Lithuania (1995, 2004). It regulates the protection, usage and management of cultural heritage areas and sites (e.g. parks, places) according to their cultural weight. The Law on Land (1994; 2004). It stipulates the tenure of land, the relations in management and use of land, as well as management and administration processes related to land. The latest version of this law largely focuses on land administration, land management, and appropriation of land for public needs, land consolidation procedures. The Law on Construction (1996; 2003). It stipulates organization and implementation of building or construction processes, defines the sequence of project preparation, as well as the requirements for process participants, including land surveyors, architects, project developers. The Law on Territorial Planning (1995, 2004, 2014). This law regulates the issues of territorial and spatial planning, sets the requirements for the contents of planning provisions and the requirements imposed in respect of territorial planning documents. The Law on Greenery (2007). This law which came into force as of 1 January 2008 as well as a package of by laws should create a legal background for the development and maintenance of urban green zone system, clear regulation of green zones, economic assessment of green zones, legitimating of green zone parcels and their registration in the Real Property Register. The majority of these laws and other regulations come in updated editions coordinated with the EU Treaty and the EC Directives. It makes the urban planning process in Lithuania an integral part of the process and the network of management of the sustainable development in Europe (Council Conclusion on Architecture, 2008; Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee, 2004). The legislative instruments stipulating the processes of implementation of urban renewal projects, urban green and water systems development are inadequate. The historical background for sustainable urban development Historical parks and other urban green spaces in the city are a part of the urban cultural heritage. It is very important subject within the various structural elements, which mould the city landscape. One of the main criteria for the modernity of European cities is the percentage of landscaped green spaces in them and protected cultural and natural frame of the city (Council conclusion on architecture, 2005). Urban identity and social coherence are affected by aesthetical, psycho emotional and social factors in addition to parameters of a physical accessibility. The genius loci, spirit of the place, is a primordial aspect within the city sustainability as well as a background for sustainable urban development. The city development must be balanced with the natural (physical) geographical conditions, economic forces, and cultural trends. It should be noted that the traditional stable (i.e. sustainable and balanced) city development ideology is now trying to add emphasis on self culture factor. Culture is understood as a kind of factor in balancing the interests of ensuring the common living locus as the essential guarantee of human rationality, because only a high cultural level of society is a good position to implement the sustainable development goals and objectives.