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Encyclopedia of Religion Volume 15 (APPENDIX SYNOPTIC OUTLINE INDEX, V. 15)
Name: Encyclopedia of Religion Volume 15 (APPENDIX SYNOPTIC OUTLINE INDEX, V. 15)
Author: lindsay jones editor in chief
Pages: 727
Year: 2004
Language: English
File Size: 8.51 MB
Downloads: 0
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Encyclopedia of Religion, Second Edition Lindsay Jones, Editor in Chief 2005 Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson, Star Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Thomson Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington, Hills, MI 48331 3535 Or you can visit our Internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means"graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, record ing, taping, Web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems"without the writ ten permission of the publisher.For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at http://www.gale edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Thomson Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331 3535 Permissions Hotline: 248 699 8006 or 800 877 4253 ext. 8006 Fax: 248 699 8074 or 800 762 4058Since this page cannot legibly accommodateall copyright notices, the acknowledgmentsconstitute an extension of the copyrightnotice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information pre sented in this publication, Thomson Gale does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Thomson Gale accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the pub lication of any organization, agency, institu tion, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or pub lisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. This title is also available as an e book. ISBN 0 02 865997 X Contact your Thomson Gale representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopedia of religion / Lindsay Jones, editor in chief." 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0 02 865733 0 (SET HARDCOVER : ALK. PAPER) " ISBN 0 02 865734 9 (V. 1) " ISBN 0 02 865735 7 (v. 2) " ISBN 0 02 865736 5 (v. 3) " ISBN 0 02 865737 3 (v. 4) " ISBN 0 02 865738 1 (v. 5) " ISBN 0 02 865739 X (v. 6) " ISBN 0 02 865740 3 (v. 7) " ISBN 0 02 865741 1 (v. 8) " ISBN 0 02 865742 X (v. 9) " ISBN 0 02 865743 8 (v. 10) " ISBN 0 02 865980 5 (v. 11) " ISBN 0 02 865981 3 (v. 12) " ISBN 0 02 865982 1 (v. 13) " ISBN 0 02 865983 X (v. 14) " ISBN 0 02 865984 8 (v. 15) 1. RELIGION"ENCYCLOPEDIAS. I. JONES, LINDSAY, 1954 BL31.E46 2005 200".3"dc22 2004017052 eorel_fmv15 2/14/05 9:45 AM Page iv


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v EDITORS AND CONSULTANTS EDITOR INCHIEF LINDSAYJONES Associate Professor, Department of Comparative Studies, Ohio State University BOARDMEMBERS DAV DCARRASCO Neil Rudenstine Professor of Study of Latin America, Divinity School and Department of Anthropology, Harvard University G IOVANNICASADIO Professor of History of Religions, Dipartimento di Scienze dell Antichit , Universit degli Studi di Salerno W ENDYDONIGER Mircea Eliade Distinguished Service Professor of the History of Religions, University of Chicago G ARYL. EBERSOLE Professor of History and Religious Studies, and Director, UMKC Center for Religious Studies, University of Missouri"Kansas City J ANETGYATSO Hershey Professor of Buddhist Studies, The Divinity School, Harvard University C HARLESHALLISEY Associate Professor, Department of Languages and Cultures of Asia andProgram in Religious Studies, University of Wisconsin"Madison C HARLESH. LONG Professor of History of Religions, Emeritus, and Former Director of Research Center for Black Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara M ARYN. MACDONALD Professor, History of Religions, Le Moyne College (Syracuse, New York) D ALEB. MARTIN Professor of Religious Studies, and Chair, Department of Religious Studies, Yale University A ZIMNANJI Professor and Director, The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London J ACOBOLUPONA Professor, African American and African Studies Program, University of California, Davis M ICHAELSWARTZ Professor of Hebrew and Religious Studies, Ohio State University I N STALAMANTEZ Associate Professor, Religious Studies Department, University of California, Santa Barbara CONSULTANTS GREGORYD. ALLES Associate Professor of Religious Studies, McDaniel College Study of Religion SIGMAANKRAVA Professor, Department of Literary and Cultural Studies, Faculty of Modern Languages, University of Latvia Baltic Religion and Slavic Religion DIANEAPOSTOLOS CAPPADONA Center for Muslim...Christian Understanding and Liberal Studies Program, Georgetown University Art and Religion DIANEBELL Professor of Anthropology and Women s Studies, George Washington University Australian Indigenous Religions KEESW. BOLLE Professor Emeritus of History, University of California, Los Angeles, and Fellow, Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences History of Religions MARKCSIKSZENTMIHALYI Associate Professor in the Department of East Asian Languages and Literature and the Program in Religious Studies, University of Wisconsin"Madison Chinese Religions RICHARDA. GARDNER Faculty of Comparative Culture, Sophia University Humor and Religion JOHNA. GRIM Professor of Religion, Bucknell University and Co Coordinator, eorel_fmv15 2/14/05 9:45 AM Page v


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viEDITORS AND CONSULTANTS ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION, SECOND EDITION Harvard Forum on Religion and Ecology Ecology and Religion JOSEPHHARRIS Francis Lee Higginson Professor of English Literature and Professor of Folklore, Harvard University Germanic Religions URSULAKING Professor Emerita, Senior Research Fellow and Associate Member of the Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Bristol, England, and Professorial Research Associate, Centre for Gender and Religions Research, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Gender and Religion DAVIDMORGAN Duesenberg Professor of Christianity and the Arts, and Professor of Humanities and Art History, Valparaiso University Color Inserts and Essays JOSEPHF. NAGY Professor, Department of English, University of California, Los Angeles Celtic Religion MATTHEWOJO Obafemi Awolowo University African Religions JUHAPENTIK INEN Professor of Comparative Religion, The University of Helsinki, Member of Academia Scientiarum Fennica, Finland Arctic Religions and Uralic Religions TEDPETERS Professor of Systematic Theology, Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary and the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California Science and Religion FRANKE. REYNOLDS Professor of the History of Religions and Buddhist Studies in the Divinity School and the Department of South Asian Languages and Civilizations, Emeritus, University of Chicago History of Religions GONZALORUBIO Assistant Professor, Department of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies and Department of History and Religious Studies, Pennsylvania State University Ancient Near Eastern Religions SUSANSERED Director of Research, Religion, Health and Healing Initiative, Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University, and Senior Research Associate, Center for Women s Health and Human Rights, Suffolk University Healing, Medicine, and Religion LAWRENCEE. SULLIVAN Professor, Department of Theology, University of Notre Dame History of Religions WINNIFREDFALLERSSULLIVAN Dean of Students and Senior Lecturer in the Anthropology and Sociology ofReligion, University of Chicago Law and Religion TODSWANSON Associate Professor of Religious Studies, and Director, Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University South American Religions MARYEVELYNTUCKER Professor of Religion, Bucknell University, Founder and Coordinator, Harvard Forum on Religion and Ecology, Research Fellow, Harvard Yenching Institute, Research Associate, Harvard Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies Ecology and Religion HUGHB. URBAN Associate Professor, Department of Comparative Studies, Ohio State University Politics and Religion CATHERINEWESSINGER Professor of the History of Religions and Women s Studies, Loyola University New Orleans New Religious Movements ROBERTA. YELLE Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Toronto Law and Religion ERICZIOLKOWSKI Charles A. Dana Professor of Religious Studies, Lafayette College Literature and Religion eorel_fmv15 2/22/05 2:06 PM Page vi


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ix ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THIS WORK abbr.abbreviated; abbreviation abr.abridged; abridgment ADanno Domini,in the year of the (our) Lord Afrik.Afrikaans AHanno Hegirae,in the year of the Hijrah Akk.Akkadian Ala.Alabama Alb.Albanian Am.Amos AMante meridiem,before noon amend.amended; amendment annot.annotated; annotation Ap.Apocalypse Apn.Apocryphon app.appendix Arab.Arabic EArakh.EArakhin Aram.Aramaic Ariz.Arizona Ark.Arkansas Arm.Armenian art.article (pl., arts.) ASAnglo Saxon Asm. Mos.Assumption of Moses Assyr.Assyrian A.S.S.R.Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Av.Avestan EA.Z.EAvodah zarah b.born Bab.Babylonian Ban.Bantu 1 Bar.1 Baruch 2 Bar.2 Baruch 3 Bar.3 Baruch 4 Bar.4 Baruch B.B.BavaDbatraD BBCBritish Broadcasting Corporation BCbefore Christ BCEbefore the common era B.D.Bachelor of Divinity Beits.Beitsah Bekh.Bekhorot Beng.Bengali Ber.Berakhot Berb.Berber Bik.Bikkurim bk.book (pl., bks.) B.M.BavaDmetsiEaD BPbefore the present B.Q.BavaDqammaD Bra h.Bra hman.a Bret.Breton B.T.Babylonian Talmud Bulg.Bulgarian Burm.Burmese c.circa,about, approximately Calif.California Can.Canaanite Catal.Catalan CEof the common era Celt.Celtic cf.confer,compare Chald.Chaldean chap.chapter (pl., chaps.) Chin.Chinese C.H.M.Community of the Holy Myrrhbearers 1 Chr.1 Chronicles 2 Chr.2 Chronicles Ch. Slav.Church Slavic cmcentimeters col.column (pl., cols.) Col.Colossians Colo.Colorado comp.compiler (pl., comps.) Conn.Connecticut cont.continued Copt.Coptic 1 Cor.1 Corinthians 2 Cor.2 Corinthians corr.corrected C.S.P.Congregatio Sancti Pauli, Congregation of Saint Paul (Paulists) d.died DDeuteronomic (source of the Pentateuch) Dan.Danish D.B.Divinitatis Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Divinity D.C.District of Columbia D.D.Divinitatis Doctor, Doctor of Divinity Del.Delaware Dem.DemaDi dim.diminutive diss.dissertation Dn.Daniel D.Phil.Doctor of Philosophy Dt.Deuteronomy Du.Dutch EElohist (source of the Pentateuch) Eccl.Ecclesiastes ed.editor (pl., eds.); edition; edited by eorel_fmv15 2/14/05 9:45 AM Page ix


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EEduy.EEduyyot e.g.exempli gratia,for example Egyp.Egyptian 1 En.1 Enoch 2 En.2 Enoch 3 En.3 Enoch Eng.English enl.enlarged Eph.Ephesians EEruv.EEruvin 1 Esd.1 Esdras 2 Esd.2 Esdras 3 Esd.3 Esdras 4 Esd.4 Esdras esp.especially Est.Estonian Est.Esther et al.et alii,and others etc.et cetera,and so forth Eth.Ethiopic EVEnglish version Ex.Exodus exp.expanded Ez.Ezekiel Ezr.Ezra 2 Ezr.2 Ezra 4 Ezr.4 Ezra f.feminine; and following (pl., ff.) fasc.fascicle (pl., fascs.) fig.figure (pl., figs.) Finn.Finnish fl.floruit,flourished Fla.Florida Fr.French frag.fragment ft.feet Ga.Georgia Gal.Galatians Gaul.Gaulish Ger.German Git ..Git.t.in Gn.Genesis Gr.Greek H .ag.H.agigah H . al.H.allah Hau.Hausa Hb.Habakkuk Heb.Hebrew Heb.Hebrews Hg.Haggai Hitt.Hittite Hor.Horayot Hos.Hosea H .ul.H.ullinHung.Hungarian ibid.ibidem,in the same place (as the one immediately preceding) Icel.Icelandic i.e.id est,that is IEIndo European Ill.Illinois Ind.Indiana intro.introduction Ir. Gael.Irish Gaelic Iran.Iranian Is.Isaiah Ital.Italian JYahvist (source of the Pentateuch) Jas.James Jav.Javanese Jb.Job Jdt.Judith Jer.Jeremiah Jgs.Judges Jl.Joel Jn.John 1 Jn.1 John 2 Jn.2 John 3 Jn.3 John Jon.Jonah Jos.Joshua Jpn.Japanese JPSJewish Publication Society trans lation (1985) of the Hebrew Bible J.T.Jerusalem Talmud Jub.Jubilees Kans. Kansas Kel.Kelim Ker.Keritot Ket.Ketubbot 1 Kgs.1 Kings 2 Kgs.2 Kings Khois.Khoisan Kil.KilDayim kmkilometers Kor.Korean Ky.Kentucky l.line (pl., ll.) La.Louisiana Lam.Lamentations Lat.Latin Latv.Latvian L. en Th.Licenci en Th ologie, Licentiate in Theology L. s L.Licenci s Lettres, Licentiate in Literature Let. Jer.Letter of Jeremiah lit.literallyLith.Lithuanian Lk.Luke LLLate Latin LL.D.Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws Lv.Leviticus mmeters m.masculine M.A.Master of Arts Ma Eas.MaEaserot Ma Eas. Sh.MaEaser sheni Mak.Makkot Makh.Makhshirin Mal.Malachi Mar.Marathi Mass.Massachusetts 1 Mc.1 Maccabees 2 Mc.2 Maccabees 3 Mc.3 Maccabees 4 Mc.4 Maccabees Md.Maryland M.D.Medicinae Doctor, Doctor of Medicine MEMiddle English Meg.Megillah Me Eil.MeEilah Men.Menah.ot MHGMiddle High German mi.miles Mi.Micah Mich.Michigan Mid.Middot Minn.Minnesota Miq.MiqvaDot MIran.Middle Iranian Miss.Mississippi Mk.Mark Mo.Missouri Mo Eed Q.MoEed qat.an Mont.Montana MPers.Middle Persian MS.manuscriptum,manuscript (pl., MSS) Mt.Matthew MTMasoretic text n.note Na.Nahum Nah.Nahuatl Naz.Nazir N.B.nota bene,take careful note N.C.North Carolina n.d.no date N.Dak.North Dakota NEBNew English Bible Nebr.Nebraska ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION, SECOND EDITION xABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS eorel_fmv15 2/14/05 9:45 AM Page x


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