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Multicultural China: A Statistical Yearbook (2014)
Name: Multicultural China: A Statistical Yearbook (2014)
Author: rongxing guo
Pages: 447
Year: 2015
Language: English
File Size: 3.69 MB
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Editors Rongxing Guo Peking University Regional Science Association of China Beijing China Uradyn E. Bulag University of Cambridge Cambridge, Cambridgeshire UK Michael A. Crang Department of Geography Durham University Durham UK Thomas Heberer Universit t Duisburg Essen Duisburg Germany Eui Gak Hwang Korea University Seoul Republic of Korea James A. Millward Department of History Georgetown University Washington, DC USAMorris RossabiWeatherhead East Asian InstituteColumbia University New York, NY USA Gerard A. Postiglione Faculty of Education The University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong SAR Chih yu Shih Department of Political Science National Taiwan University Taipei Taiwan Nicholas Tapp ANU College of Asia and the Paci c Australian National University Canberra, ACT Australia Luc Changlei Guo Beijing China ISSN 2194 7937ISSN 2194 7945 (electronic) ISBN 978 3 662 44112 1ISBN 978 3 662 44113 8 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978 3 662 44113 8 Library of Congress Control Number: 2014945099 Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speci cally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on micro lms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied speci cally for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher"s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a speci c statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (

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Preface The objective of this book is to collect and estimate a set of data on the socio economic situations of China"s 56 ethnic groups. Although the majority of China"s population is of the Han nationality (which accounts for more than 90 % of China"s population), the non Han ethnic groups have a population of more than 100 million. China has of cially identi ed, except for other unknown ethnic groups and foreigners with Chinese citizenship, 55 ethnic minorities. In addition, ethnic minorities vary greatly in size. With a pop ulation of more than 15 million, the Zhuang are the largest ethnic minority, and the Lhoba, with a population of only about 3,000, the smallest. China"s ethnic diversity has resulted in a special socioeconomic landscape for China itself. However, till present, a complete socioeconomic picture of China"s ethnic groups especially of its smallest ethnic minorities still remains unclear. How different have been China"s ethnic groups in every sphere of daily life and economic development during China"s fast transition period? In order to answer these questions, we need a detailed and comparable set of data for each of China"s ethnic groups. There has not been any of cial statement of China"s socioeconomic develop ment from a multiethnic dimension. The only of cial data released can be found in China Ethnic Statistical Yearbook(released by the State Ethnic Affairs Com mission of the People"s Republic of China since 1994). However, as the above Yearbook has only reported the socioeconomic statistics for the minority based autonomous areas, a complete set of China"s multiethnic data cannot be derived from it. For instance, only ve provincial level minority based autonomous regions (i.e., Inner Mongolia, Tibet, the Zhuang based Guangxi, the Hui based Ningxia, and the Uygur based Xinjiang) and 30 ethnic minority autonomous divisions at prefecture level and 120 ethnic minority autonomous divisions at county level all of the latter cover China"s 16 provinces, three autonomous regions and one municipality directly under the central government are included in this Yearbook. The entire minority based autonomous areas, however, account for only less than a half of their total population of the ethnic minorities (see Appendix B for details). This means that Han Chinese has now become the v

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Organization of this Book This book sets out to present, in an easy to use format, a broad collection of social and economic indicators on China"s 56 ethnic groups. It is a resource book that pro les the general social and economic situations for each of these ethnic groups. This book is organized as follows. This book contains nine chapters. Chapter1presents a short introduction to each of China"s 56 ethnic groups. In the remaining chapters the data on each ethnic group"s macroeconomic conditions (Chap.2), population and labor force (Chap.3), employment and wages (Chap.4), people"s livelihood (Chap.5), social production and rural economy (Chap.6), education and science and technology (Chap.7), public health and social security (Chap.8), and culture and sports (Chap.9) are reported. In this book, data are presented on an ethnic group by ethnic group basis, and the ethnic groups are ordered alphabetically, from the Achang to the Zhuang. Though most of the data are as of 2011 the latest year when our research was conducted, we also provide some historical data for a few of indicators. This is intended to help readers to conduct time series comparisons and analyses. There are three appendices. Appendix A provides ethnic populations of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and of China as a whole, which are derived from China"s two recent national population censuses (2000 and 2010). In Appendix B the administrative and demographic statistics of the minority based administrative divisions at different levels (including autonomous regions as the rst class administrative divisions; cities, prefectures, and autonomous prefectures as the second class administrative divisions; and cities, counties, autonomous counties, and banners (Qi) as the third class administrative divisions) are presented. At last, Appendix C provides selected indicators on the social and economic development of ethnic minority autonomous areas. At the end of this book, there is a glossary including some explanatory notes on the main statistical indicators reported in this book. vii

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Acknowledgments It is a challenging task for us to prepare the statistical data that cover various elds of all ethnic groups in China. The major obstacle is that China has not established any ethnically oriented statistical reporting or surveying system. During the process when this research was conducted, we have received generous help from the following organizations: Association of Power Generation Enterprises of China (APGE) China Mobile Corp. Ltd. China Telecom Corp. Ltd. China Unicom Corp. Ltd. Department of Financial Management, Ministry of Culture (MOC) Department of Financial Management, State Administration of Broadcasting, Film and Television (SABFT) Department of Financial Management, General Administration of Press and Publication (GAPP) Department of Planning and Development, Ministry of Education (MOE) Department of Population and Employment Statistics of the National Bureau ofStatistics (NBS) Department of Urban Socio economic Survey, National Bureau of Statistics(NBS) Finance Department, General Administration of Sport (GAS) Information Center, Ministry of Health (MOH) Inspection and Quarantine and State Intellectual Property Of ce (IQSIPO) Ministry of Health (MOH) Rural Socio economic Survey Organization, National Bureau of Statistics(NBS) State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) General Administration of Press and Publication (GAPP) This book has also bene ted from the skilful assistance from many individuals. They are (in alphabetical order by family name): Bian Lihua, Cai Qixin, Chen Yueyue, Deng Weiping, Dong Lihua, Du Yan, Feng Nailin, Feng Nailin, Guan ix

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Xiaojing, Guo Dong, Hao Shenglong, Hou Rui, Huang Pei, Jin Zhaofeng, Ju Chuanling, Li Huimin, Li Junbo, Li Min, Li Suoqiang, Li Xiaowei, Liang Erwei, Long Ling, Luan Jinhui, Meng Hehe, Que Xiaoqing, Song Shaoying, Tang Ping, Tie Bing, Wang Ping, Wang Xiaohong, Xiao Li, Xu Hui, Xu Lan, Xu Xiongfei, Ye Liqi, Ye Shifang, Zhai Shangqing, Zhang Xin, Zhao Huiyun, Zheng Xuegong, Zheng Zexiang, Zhou Xuewen, and Zhu Weisheng. The photos that are adopted in Chap.1are drawn by Zhou Xiuqing and Jin Xiang under the nancial support received from the State Post Bureau (SPB) of the People"s Republic of China. During the review and revision stage, the feedback and encouragement received from Mr. Toby Chai, Ms. Lydia Wang, Mr. Lvy Gong and other editors and readers at Springer enabled us to nalize this project without delay. I am especially grateful to various anonymous reviewers whose comments and suggestions have helped us re ne many parts of this research. However, all views and errors in this book certainly are those of the respective authors only and not necessarily those of the book"s editors and of the organizations and individuals who provided the original data. Qiaozi, Huairou, BeijingRongxing Guo April 2014Editor in Chief xAcknowledgments

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