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Marine Corrosion of Stainless Steels - Chlorination and Microbial Effects
Name: Marine Corrosion of Stainless Steels - Chlorination and Microbial Effects
Pages: 217
Year: 1993
Language: English
File Size: 10.69 MB
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Marine Corrosion of Stainless Steels: Chlorination and Microbial Effects 7. Corrosion of Stainless Steels caused by Bromine Emission from Chlorinated Seawater J. W. Oldfield and B. Todd TESTING 8. Improved Method for Measuring Polarisation Curves of Alloys During Prolonged Times of Exposure F. P. IJsseling 92 100 9. Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Monitor 108 Seawater Fouling on Stainless Steels and Copper Alloys D. Fkron 10. Effect of Temperature on Inititation, Repassivation and Propagation of Crevice Corrosion of High Alloyed Stainless Steels in Natural Seawater S. Valen, P. 0. Gartland and U. Steinsmo 114 11. An Intelligent Probe for in situ Assessment of Susceptibility of Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Steel for Offshore Platform Joints W. Wei, D. Peng, F. Chao, L. Zhengand D. Yuan long 12. Aspects of Testing Stainless Steels for Seawater Applications P. 0. Gartland 13. Biofilm Monitoring in Seawater A. Mollica, E. Traverso and G. Ventura MECHANISM 14. Identification of Sulphated Green Rust 2 Compound Produced as a Result of Microbially Induced Corrosion of Steel Sheet Piles in a Harbour J. M. R. Gknin, A. A. Olowe, 8. Resiak, N. D. Benbouzid Rollet, M. Confente and D. Prieur 128 134 149 162 15. The Role of Green Rust Compounds in Aqueous Corrosion of Iron in 167 Aggressive Media Close to a Marine Environment Ph. Refait, J. M. R. Ge'nin and A. A. Olowe vi

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Introduction This volume contains the papers which were presented at two recent symposia: International Workshop on Stainless Steels and Chlorination in Seawater, Brest, 29 30 May, 1991 (EFC Event no. 186), organised by IFREMER Centre de Brest with support from the EFC Working Party on Marine Corrosion. International Symposium on Marine and Microbial Corrosion, Stockholm, 30 September 2 October, 1991 (EFC Event no. 184), organised by the Swedish Corrosion Institute with support from the EFC Working Parties on Microbial Corrosion and Marine Corrosion. Many topics of current interest were covered, including papers on microbial corrosion, testing and monitoring, mechanisms, chlorination of seawater, the application of stainless steels in seawater environment and corrosion protection. Some of the papers presented at the conference were omitted from this publication since they had been published elsewhere. The majority of the papers in the present volume represent the experience of European authors, although two papers originate from the People's Republic of China. A broad classification of topics had been made, thus Introductory Papers are followed by Experience Papers and then by papers on the specific subjects of Chlorination, Testing Methods (including monitoring), Mechanisms and Protection. The classification is not exclusive since many papers could be associated with more than one topic. Both conferences demonstrated the necessity to attack the marine corrosion problem in an interdisciplinary way. F. P. IJsseling Chairman, Marine Corrosion Working Party D. Thierry Chairman, Microbial Corrosion Working Party X

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European Federation of Corrosion Publications Series Introduction The EFC, incorporated in Belgium, was founded in 1955 with the purpose of promoting European co operation in the fields of research into corrosion and corrosion prevention. Membership is based upon participation by corrosion societies and committees in technical Working Parties. Member societies appoint delegates to Working Parties, whose membership is expanded by personal corresponding membership. The activities of the Working Parties cover corrosion topics associated with inhibition, education, reinforcement in concrete, microbial effects, hot gases and combustion prod ucts, environment sensitive fracture, marine environments, surface science, physico chemical methods of measurement, the nuclear industry, computer based information systems and corrosion in the oil and gas industry. Working Parties on other topics are established as required. The Working Parties function in various ways, e.g. by preparing reports, organising symposia, conducting intensive courses and producing instructional material, including films. The activities of the Working Parties are co ordinated, through a Science and Technology Advisory Committee, by the Scientific Secretary. The administration of the EFC is handled by three Secretariats: DECHEMA e. V. in Germany, the SociCtC de Chimie Industrielle in France, and The Institute of Materials in the United Kingdom. These three Secretariats meet at the Board of Administrators of the EFC. There is an annual General Assembly at which delegates from all member societies meet to determine and approve EFC policy. News of EFC activities, forthcoming conferences, courses etc. is published in a range of accredited corrosion and certain other journals throughout Europe. More detailed descriptions of activities are given in a Newsletter prepared by the Scientific Secretary. The output of the EFC takes various forms. Papers on particular topics, for example, reviews or results of experimental work, may be published in scientific and technical journals in one or more countries in Europe. Conference proceedings are often published by the organisation responsible for the conference. In 1987 the, then, Institute of Metals was appointed as the official EFC publisher. Although the arrangement is non exclusive and other routes for publication are still available, it is expected that the Working Parties of the EFC will use The Institute of Materials for publication of reports, proceedings etc. wherever possible. The name of The Institute of Metals was changed to The Institute of Materials with effect from 1 January 1992. A. D. Mercer EFC Scientific Secretary, The Institute of Materials, London, UK viii

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Aspects of Marine Corrosion and Testing for Seawater Applications F. P. IJSSELING Corrosion Laboratory, Royal Netherlands Naval College (Harssens), c/o Marinepostkamer, PB 10 000,1780 CA, Den Helder, The Netherlands Abstract A brief review is given of the main factors which make seawater such a corrosive fluid. Some modern developments in marine corrosion control and the peculiarities of marine corrosion testing are discussed. 1. Introduction The corrosive nature of seawater has already been widely documented 11 71. The main factors which make seawater such a corrosive fluid are now discussed briefly. These factors are divided in two groups: (biokhemical (i.e. oxygen, carbonate, salts, organic compounds, biochemical activity and pollutants) and physical (i.e. temperature, flow velocity, potential, pressure and light). The methods of corrosion control are reviewed with emphasis on those methods which find a wide application in the marine environment. Finally, corrosion testing in general and the peculiarities of marine corrosion testing, in particular the use of natural seawater, stored or recirculated seawater and synthetic solutions for testing purposes is discussed. 2. Corrosion in Seawater Corrosion in seawater is due to the interaction between the material and the environment, caused by electrochemical reactions which occur at the metal surface. It is well known that corrosion is not a specific materials property such as density, but depends on a large number of variables. A number of these are connected with the alloy, e.g. overall chemical composition, microstructure and surface state. Others are related to the environment, such as type and concentration of redox system(s) which may provoke the corrosion reaction, the presence of compounds which form stable complexes with the dissolved metal ions, etc. Finally there are a number of physical factors which depending on the particular sys tem may exert a considerable influence. Examples of these are potential, temperature, stress and flow velocity. Generally seawater from the open seus can be considered as a dynamic aqueous system, containing dissolved salts, gases and organic compounds, undissolved material and living organisms. The dissolved inorganic material comprises almost all known elements, sometimes found in several ionic and molecular forms (Table 1). The major constituents, as shown in the table, account for over 99.85% of the total dissolved salts. The variations in the concentrations of these species with location and depth are generally rather small. Of the minor components dissolved 0, and CO, are particularly important. Dissolved CO, is part of the well known carbonate/bicarbonate equilibrium reactions (Fig. l), 1

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