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Introduction to Nanoelectronics Increasing miniaturization of devices, components, and integrated systems requires developments in the capacity to measure, organize, and manipulate matter at the nanoscale.Thistextbookisacomprehensive,interdisciplinaryaccountofthetechnology and science that underpin nanoelectronics, covering the underlying physics, nanostruc tures, nanomaterials, and nanodevices. Without assuming prior knowledge of quantum physics, this book provides a unifying framework for the basic ideas needed to understand the recent developments in the field. Following an introductory description of recent trends in semiconductor and device nanotechnologies, as well as novel device concepts, materials for nanoelectronics are treated, covering methods of growth, fabrication and characterization. Treatment then moves to an analysis of nanostructures, including recently discovered nanoobjects, and concludes with a discussion of devices that use a "simple" scaling down approach to copywell knownmicroelectronicdevices,andnanodevicesbasedonnewprinciplesthat cannot be realized at the macroscale. Numerous illustrations, homework problems and interactive Java applets help the student to appreciate the basic principles of nanotechnology, and to apply them to real problems. Written in a clear yet rigorous and interdisciplinary manner, this textbook is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in electrical and electronic engineering, nanoscience, materials, bioengineering, and chemical engineering. Further resources for this title, including instructor solutions and Java applets, are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521881722. Vladimir V. Mitinis a Professor and Chair of the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Buffalo, State University of New York. He has co authored eight books, and over 400 professional publications, including ten patents. Viatcheslav A. Kochelapis Professor and Head of the Theoretical Physics Department at the Institute of Semiconductor Physics National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine. He has published over 200 journal articles. Michael A. Strosciois a Professor in the departments of Electrical and Computer Engi neering, and Bioengineering, at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, the American Physical Society, and the AAAS.

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CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, S o Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB28RU, UK First published in print format ISBN 13 978 0 521 88172 2 ISBN 13978 0 511 36811 0 Cambridge University Press 2008 2007 Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521881722 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. ISBN 10 0 511 36811 9 ISBN 10 0 521 88172 2 Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org hardback eBook (Adobe Reader) eBook (Adobe Reader) hardback

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viContents 5 Growth, fabrication, and measurement techniques for nanostructures109 5.1 Introduction 109 5.2 Bulk crystal and heterostructure growth 110 5.3 Nanolithography, etching, and other means for fabrication of nanostructures and nanodevices 115 5.4 Techniques for characterization of nanostructures 120 5.5 Spontaneous formation and ordering of nanostructures 127 5.6 Clusters and nanocrystals 134 5.7 Methods of nanotube growth 136 5.8 Chemical and biological methods for nanoscale fabrication 141 5.9 Fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems 157 5.10 Closing remarks 161 5.11 Problems 163 6 Electron transport in semiconductors and nanostructures165 6.1 Introduction 165 6.2 Time and length scales of the electrons in solids 165 6.3 Statistics of the electrons in solids and nanostructures 172 6.4 The density of states of electrons in nanostructures 180 6.5 Electron transport in nanostructures 183 6.6 Closing remarks 213 6.7 Problems 215 7 Electrons in traditional low dimensional structures218 7.1 Introduction 218 7.2 Electrons in quantum wells 218 7.3 Electrons in quantum wires 228 7.4 Electrons in quantum dots 231 7.5 Closing remarks 237 7.6 Problems 238 8 Nanostructure devices242 8.1 Introduction 242 8.2 Resonant tunneling diodes 242 8.3 Field effect transistors 255 8.4 Single electron transfer devices 269 8.5 Potential effect transistors 276 8.6 Light emitting diodes and lasers 284 8.7 Nanoelectromechanical system devices 306 8.8 Quantum dot cellular automata 317 8.9 Closing remarks 321 Appendix: tables of units323 Index325

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Preface Welcome to the amazingnanoworld! In this book you willfind fundamental princi ples in nanoscience and basic techniques of measurement, as well as fabrication and manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. The book discusses how these principles, tech niques, and technologies are applied to the newest generation of electronics, known as nanoelectronics. Thescienceofatomsandsimplemolecules,andthescienceofmatterfrommicrostruc tures to larger scales, are both well established. A remaining, extremely important, size relatedchallengeisatthenanoscale roughlythedimensionalscalesbetween10and100 moleculardiameters wherethefundamentalpropertiesofmaterialsaredeterminedand can be engineered. Thisfield of science nanoscience is a broad and interdisciplinary field of emerging research and development. Nanotechnology is concerned with materials, structures, and systems whose compo nents exhibit novel and significantly modified physical, chemical, and biological prop erties due to their nanoscale sizes. A principal goal of nanotechnology is to control and exploitthesepropertiesinstructuresanddevicesatatomic,molecular,andsupramolecu larlevels.Torealizethisgoal,itisessentialtolearnhowtofabricateandusethesedevices efficiently.Nanotechnologyhasenjoyedexplosivegrowthinthepastfewyears.Inpartic ular,nanofabricationtechniqueshaveadvancedtremendouslyinrecentyears.Obviously, revolutionary changes in the ability to measure, organize, and manipulate matter on the nanoscale are highly beneficial for electronics with its persistent trend of downscaling devices, components, and integrated systems. In turn, the miniaturization required by electronics is one of the major driving forces for nanoscience and nanotechnology. Practicalimplementationsofnanoscienceandnanotechnologyhavegreatimportance, and they depend critically on training people in thesefields. Thus, modern education needs to address the rapidly evolving facets of nanoscience and nanotechnology. A new generation of researchers, technologists, and engineers has to be trained in the emerg ing nanodisciplines. With the purpose of contributing to education in the nanofields, we present this textbook providing a unifying framework for the basic ideas needed to understandrecentdevelopmentsunderlyingnanoscienceandnanotechnology,asapplied to nanoelectronics. The book grew out of the authors'research and teaching experience inthesesubjects.Wehavefoundthatmanyoftheideasandachievementsinfieldsunder lying nanoscience and nanotechnology can be explained in a relatively simple setting, if the necessary foundational underpinnings are presented properly. We have designed this textbook mainly forundergraduate students, who will be trained in diversefields

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viiiPreface including nanoscience, physics of material devices, electrical and optical engineering, materials science and engineering, and mechanical engineering. It can be helpful also for training students in bioengineering and chemical engineering. To reach such a broad audience, materials are presented in such a way that an instructor can choose the level of presentation depending on the backgrounds of the students. For example, we have included Chapters 2 and 3 in part for students who have not taken a quantum mechanics course. An analogy with wavefields elastic waves and optical waves is exploited widelytointroducewavemechanicsofparticlesandquantumprinciples,whichplaykey roles in the interpretation of the properties of nanomaterials. One of us (V.V.M.) has taught the course for students in the second semester of their sophomore year. For students at this level, Chapters 2 and 3 were covered in detail and, consequently, there was not enough time to cover all of the devices that are discussed in Chapter8.Ifstudentsusingthebookhavepreviouslytakencoursesonquantummechan ics and electromagnetics, the instructor may start from Chapter 4. This book may be also usedasanintroductorygraduateorseniorundergraduatecourse.Anotherofus(M.A.S.) hasusedChapters2and3astheintroductiontoagraduatecourseonnanoelectronicsfor a class with students drawn from electrical engineering, materials engineering, chem ical engineering, mechanical engineering, and physics. By covering Chapters 2 and 3 at the beginning of the course, the students can then proceed from this common basis in quantum mechanics and other underlying areas of physics to cover more advanced topics, either in the current text or in other texts such asQuantum Heterostructuresby V. Mitin, V. Kochelap, and M. Stroscio. The latter approach has been used by M.A.S. in teaching nanoelectronics to graduate students with diverse backgrounds in many disci plines within engineering and the physical sciences. For this purpose, we include details of derivations and mathematical justification of concepts in some sections. These details can be omitted from an undergraduate curriculum. The book contains homework problems on various subjects. These problems illustrate the basic material and help students to understand and learn the basic principles of the nanoscience and the nanotechnology. ***** Essentially, the chapters are organized into three main groups. Chapters1 3areofanintroductorycharacter.InChapter1,wepresentinconciseform the main subject of the book. The recent and diverse trends in semiconductor and device nanotechnologies, as well as novel concepts of nanodevices, are reviewed. These trends makeitclearwhyunderstandingthefundamentalsofnanoscienceisofgreatimportance. Chapters 2 and 3 are written for students who have not taken a quantum mechanics course.Ananalogywithwavefields(elasticwavesandopticalwaves)isexploitedwidely to introduce wave mechanics of particles and the quantum principles, which play key roles in the interpretation of the properties of nanomaterials. In Chapter 2, we explain that the fundamental laws of physics governing particles and materialfields in the nanoworld are different from those that apply to familiar macroscopic phenomena. Starting with an analysis of an arbitrary wavefield (elas tic vibrations in solids, electromagneticfields, etc.), wefind particle like behavior of this wavefield for small wave amplitudes and (or) for spatial scales larger than the

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Introduction to Nanoelectronics: Science, Nanotechnology, Engineering, and Applications

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