Download Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol 18. Supplement 2. ALEKSANDR NIKOLAEVICH LEBEDEV - FRITZ ZWICK PDF

Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol 18. Supplement 2. ALEKSANDR NIKOLAEVICH LEBEDEV - FRITZ ZWICK
Name: Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol 18. Supplement 2. ALEKSANDR NIKOLAEVICH LEBEDEV - FRITZ ZWICK
Author: charles coulston gillispie ed. frederic l. holmes editor in chief
Pages: 546
Year: 1990
Language: English
File Size: 131.01 MB
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PUBLISHED UNDER 711E AUSPICES OF THE AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNH) S'OCIET/ES The American Council of I. en rued Societies. organised in 1919 for the purpose of advancing the study of the humanities and of the humanistic aspects of the social sciences, is a nonprofit federation comprising forty six national scholarly grt ups. The Council represents the humanities in the United States in the International Union of Academies provides fellowships and grants in aid, supports research and planning conferences and symposia, and sponsors special projects and scholarh publications. WkL111tH? ORGA % /Za l7OA'S AMERICAN I'HILOSOPHICAl. SOCIETY, 1743 AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 1780 AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY. 181? AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY, 1842 AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 1858 AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL. ASSOCIATION. 1869 ARCHAEOLOGICAL. INSTTI(I'IT: OE AMERICA. 1879 SOCIETY Of 13113LICAI. I.TTERAIURE. 18811 MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. 1881 AMERICANHISTORICALASSOCIATION, 1884 AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, 1885 AMERICAN FOLKLORE SOCIETY. 1888 AMERICAN DIALECT SO('II(TY. 1889 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL. ASSOCIATION. 1892 ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN LAW SCHOOLS. 1900 AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL ASSOCIATION. 1901 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAI. ASSOCIATION. 19(12 AMERICAN POLIII('.AI. SCIENCE. ASSOCIATION. 1901 131131.1OGRAPHICAI. SOCII I'Y OF AMERICA. 19(14 ASSOCIATION 01:AMERICAN GEOGRAPHERS. 1904 HISPANIC SO('I1:FY OE AMERICA. 191)4 AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 1909 AMERICAN SOC11:1 Y Of IN I ERNAIIONAI. LAW, 1906 ORGANIZATION OE AMERICAN HISTORIANS. 1907 AMERICAN ACADEMY 01:RELIGION. 1909 COI.I.EGE ART.ASSOCIATION 01' AMERICA. 1912 HISTORY OF S('II:N(*E SOCIETY. 1924 LIN(i(iISIIC SOCIIA) OF AMERI("A. 19'_4 MI:DIAIIVAI. AC'AUI:MY OE AMERICA, 1925 AMERICAN MUSIC'OLOGICAI.SOCIETY,1914 SOCIETY OF ARCH ITII('TURAI. HISTORIANS, 1940 ECONOMIC HISTORY ASSOC'IAIION. 1940 ASSOCIATION FOR ASIAN STUDIES. 1941 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR AESTHETICS, 1942 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SLAVIC STUDIES 1948 MEFAI'HYSIC'AI. SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 19511 AMERICAN STUDIES ASSO(' ION. 1950 RENAISSANCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 1994 SOCIETY OR El HNOMFSICOLOGY. 1959 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR LEGAL. HISTORY. 1956 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THEAT'RIL RESEARCH. 1956 SOCIEIY FOR THE HISTORY 01:TECHNOLOGY. 1998 AMERICAN C'OMPARAIIVI:I.TTERAtURI? ASSOCIATION, 1961) MIDDLE EAST STUDIES ASSOCIATION Of' NORTH AMERICA, 1966 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR FIGFI'IEI :)41'11 CIiN1'URY STUDIES, 1969 ASSOCIATION FOR JEWISH SItlDIES, 1969


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Charles Scribner's Sons An Imprint of Simon & Schuster Macmillan 1633 Broadway, New York, NY 10019 6785 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without the permission of Charles Scribner's Sons. 57911 13 15 17 19 20 18 16 14 12 10864 Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1990 American Council of I.c<urncd Societies. First publication in an eight volume edition 1981. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Dictionary of scientific biography. "Published under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies." Includes bibliographies and index. I. Scientists Biography. I. Gillispie. Charles Coulston. 11. American Council of Learned Societies Devoted to Humanistic Studies. Q 14l.D5 1981 509'.2'2113180 27830 ISBN 0 684 ISBN 0 684 16963 0 Vols. I & 2 ISBN 0 684 16968 I Vols. I I &12 ISBN 0 684 16964 9 Vols. 3 & 4 ISBN 0 684 16969 X Vols. 13 &14 ISBN 0 684 16965 7 Vols. 5 & 6 ISBN 0 684 16970 3 Vols. 15 &16 ISBN 0 684 16966 5 Vols. 7 & 8 ISBN 0 684 19177 6 Vol. 17 ISBN 0 684 16967 3 Vols. 9 & 10 ISBN 0 684 19178 4 Vol. 18


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LLBEDEV,ALEKSANDRNIKOLAEVICH(h. Moscow, Russia. 21 May 1881;d.Moscow, 3 June I'.V;'),biochcmisirv. :.cter graduating from a classical gymnasium in Moscow, Lebedev entered the Faculty of Natural Scic,.ces at Moscow University in 1897. Upon re ceiving his bachelor's degree in 1901, he became an assistant in the chemical laboratory of N. D. Zelinsky at the university. There he became inter ested in catalysis and the occurrence of catalytic phenomena in living forms . Already possessing an exceptional chemical background, Lebedev decided to expand his bio logical and agronomical education while continuing his work at Zelinsky's laboratory by enrolling in the Petrov Rasumov (today the Timiriazev) Agri cultural Institute, from which he received a master's degree in agronomy (1904). Lebedev was sent abroad in the year 1905 1906 to train for the professorship. He worked with Georg Bredig in Heidelberg, where he conducted his first research on the influence of a high frequency current on hydrogen peroxide. In 1907 he went to Berlin, where he worked in the laboratory of Eduard Buch ner at the University of Berlin. For a few months in 1910 he worked with Emil Fischer at his Institute of Organic Chemistry, also at the University of Berlin. In Buchner's laboratory Lebedev began his lengthy research on the chemical nature of alcohol fermen tation. At that time the discussions resulting from contradictions in the opinions of Louis Pasteur, Marcellin Berthelot, and Moritz Traube had not been forgotten, and the conception that the chemical metabolic processes in the cell could be represented as a chain of connected biocatalytic reactions was being increasingly affirmed. Lebedev studied the kinetics of alcoholic fermentation, then began to search for intermediate products of the conversions of sugar in the process of alcohol fermentation. He was seeking to determine a general scheme of these processes, something that Adolf von Baeyer and Eduard Vohl had already attempted to do, but un successfully and only speculatively. Lebedev's in tense work in the laboratory led to a hemorrhage in his eye and an exacerbation of existing tuber culosis. He discontinued his work in the laboratory and went to Palermo, Sicily, where he began to summarize the data he had collected. In 1911 Lebedev continued his research on fer mentation at the Pasteur Institute's biochemical section, headed by Gabriel Bertrand. Here he de veloped a method for obtaining the enzyme of fer mentation, zymase, from dry yeast. (More precisely, 533zymase is an enzyme complex inducing extracellularfermentation of sugars.) This method of maceration became the classical one. displacing Buchner's method. Lebedev read a paper on this work before the Paris Chemical Society, which awarded him its prize for it. Upon his return to Russia, Lebedev was given a teaching position at the Don Polytechnical Institute in Novocherkassk. While there, he published his most important articles on the chemical nature of fermentation, and he summarized his research in Khimicheskieiss/e dovaniianad vnekletochnym spirtovhvvrn brozhc nicer(Chemical research on ex tracellular alcohol fermentation, 1913), which he presented to Moscow University for the doctorate in chemistry . This work received the University Award, and in 1914 Lebedev elected professor of the highest order at the Don Polytechnical Institute. In 1911 Lebedev showed that dihydroxyacetone is fermented by yeast juice ; and in 1912, with N . Griaznov, he established that for fermentation to occur, the enzyme reductase was required, the activity of which was induced by a thermostable coenzyme. This coenzyme could be separated from zymase by means of dialysis, and the addition of the dialysate or a small quantity of boiled yeast juice restored the initial activity of zymase that was lost during dialysis. Lebedev obtained osazones of intermediate products of fermentation, and he iden tified them as hexose phosphorus ethers. In 1909 Lebedev proposed the first scheme of alcohol fermentation, with the main role in this pro cess being played by trioses : glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone. In 1912 Lebedev clarified this scheme, including in it triose phosphates as indis pensable intermediate products of the anaerobic de composition of carbohydrates. This scheme was confirmed by Otto Meyerhof and Gustav Embden. In 1921 Lebedev moved to Moscow as professor of agronomy at Moscow University (where he worked until his death). At the same time he became a member of the Scientific Research Institute of the university. From 1930 he headed the biochemical laboratory of the Central Scientific Research Food Institute, and from 1935 he headed the biochemistry laboratory of the All Union Institute of Experimental Medicine in Moscow. BIBLIOGRAPHY I. ORIGINAL WORKS."Uber Hexosephosphorsaurecs ter," inBiochemische Ze itschriR,28(1910), 213 229; "Extraction delazymase par simple maceration," in Coniptes rendus de l'AcadOmie des sciences (Paris), t.5.'', (1911), 49 51:"Uber den Mechanismus der alkoholischen


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LEFSCHE'l'Z Giirung." inBiochemi.sche 7ritsclnri/t, 46 (1912). 483 489: andKhimicheskie issledoraniia nacl rnekletochnYwi spirtovnvvm hro:heniem(Chemical research on extracellular alcohol fermentation: Novocherkassk. 1913). 11.SECONDARY Lll'IE:RAtURF.Anatoly Bezkorovainy. "Contributions of Some Early Russian Scientists to the Understanding of Glycolysis," inJournalofthe history, ofMedicine,28.no. 4 (1973).388 392. A. N.SnAnuN LEFSCHETZ, SOLOMON(b. Moscow, Russia, 3 September 1884:(l.Princeton, New Jersey, 5 October 1972),mathematics. Lefschetz was the son of Alexander Lefschetz, an importer, and his wife, Vera, who were Turkish citizens . Shortly after his birth the family moved to Paris, where he grew up with five brothers and one sister. French was his native tongue, but he learned Russian and other languages in later years. From 1902 to 1905 Lefschetz studied at the Ecole Centrale, Paris, graduating asin,g,enieur des arts et m anuu)actures.In November 1905 he emigrated to the United States and found a job at the Baldwin Locomotive Works near Philadelphia. In early 1907 he joined the engineering staff of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company in Pittsburgh . In November of that year he lost his hands and forearms in a tragic accident. Lefschetz soon realized that his true bent was mathematics, not engineering . Among his professors at the Ecole Centrale had been Emile Picard and Paul Appell, authors of famous treatises on analysis and analytic mechanics that he now read. In 1910, while teaching apprentices at Westinghouse, Lef schetz determined to make his career in mathematics. He enrolled as a graduate student at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, and obtained the Ph.D. in just one year with a dissertation on a problem in algebraic geometry proposed by W. E. Story. On 17 June 1912 Lefschetz became an American citizen, and on 3 July 1913 he married Alice Berg Hayes, a fellow student at Clark who had received a master's degree in mathematics. She helped him to overcome his handicap, encouraging him in his work and moderating his combative ebullience. They had no children. From 1911 to 1913 Lefschetz was an instructor at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, where he taught a heavy load of beginning courses but found ample time to pursue his own work in algebraic geometry . In 1913 he moved to a slightly better position at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. As his work became known in America and Europe, he rose through the ranks to become full professor 5 34LEFSC'H ETZ in 1923. In 1919 he was awarded the Prix Bordin by the Academic des Sciences of Paris and in 1923 the Bocher Memorial Prize of the American Math ematical Society. In 1924 Lefschetz accepted a post at Princeton University, where he spent the rest of his life. He had prized the opportunity for solitary research at Nebraska and Kansas, but he welcomed the new world that opened up to him at Princeton. He ac quired distinguished geometers as colleagues James W. Alexander, Luther P. Eisenhart, Oswald Veb len and met stimulating visitors from abroad, such as Pavel Aleksandrov, Heinz Hopf, M. H . A. New man, and Hermann Weyl. His first (1926) of some thirtydoctoral studentswas the topologist to be Paul A. Smith. who had followed him to Prince ton from Kansas. From his Ph.D. to his appointment to the faculty of Princeton, Lefschetz worked mainly in algebraic geometry, his most important results being presented in his 1921 paper "On Certain Numerical Invariants of Algebraic Varieties with Application to Abelian Varieties" and in his 1924 monographL'analvsis sites et la c~ oinetrie algc5brigue.The study of the properties of families of algebraic curves and surfaces began in the nineteenth century as part of the theory of algebraic functions of complex variables . For Lefschetz, too, curves and surfaces and, more generally, algebraic varieties were significant rep resentations of the corresponding functions. He was able to solve some of the problems encountered by his predecessors and to enlarge the scope of the subject by the use of new methods. As he put it, "It was my lot to plant the harpoon of algebraic topology into the body of the whale of algebraic geometry." In the 1850's G. F. B. Riemann founded the mod ern theory of complex algebraic curves by consid ering, for each curve, an associated surface now called the Riemann surface. The theory was further developed by Guido Castelnuovo, Federigo En riques, Francesco Severi, and especially Emile Pi card. (Lefschetz, while at the Ecole Central, had taken Picard's demanding course.) Riemann and these later mathematicians recognized that it is the topological properties of the Riemann surface (the connectedness properties of the surface as a whole rather than its metrical and local properties) that are significant, yet at the time there was no theory of such properties. In the 1890's Henri Polncare established such a theory (under the name "analysis situs"), and Lefschetz used Poincare's results to extend the work of Riemann and his successors. Riemann had used a series of cuts to turn the


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LEFSCHETZ Riemann surface into an open 2 cell (and the cor respondence between the function and the 2 cell then gave the desired results); Lefschetz used a series of cuts to turn a nonsingular algebraic variety of complex dimensiondinto an open 2d cell. This allowed him to answer many questions (for example, he showed that not all orientable manifolds of even dimension are the carrier manifolds of algebraic varieties) and to extend the theory of integrals of the second kind to double and triple integrals on an algebraic variety of any dimension. Lefschetz took up Poincare's study of curves on a surface, which he generalized to the study of subvarieties of an algebraic variety. He found nec essary and sufficient conditions for an integral (2d 2) dimensional homology class of variety V of com plex dimensiondto contain the cycle of a divisor on V. This result and others allowed Lefschetz to make important contributions to the theory of cor respondences between curves and to the theory of Abelian varieties. (A much more detailed review by W. V. D. Hodge of Lefschetz's work and influence in algebraic geometry appears in the volumeAl gebraic Geometry arc! Topology.) According to Hodge, "Our greatest debt to Lef schetz lies in the fact that he showed us that a study of topology was essential for all algebraic geometers." Lefschetz' work in algebraic geometry also gave great impetus to the study of topology, since its value to other areas of mathematics had been demonstrated. In 1923 Lefschetz turned to the development of Poincare's topology, calling it al gebraic topology to distinguish it from the abstract topology of sets of points. Almost all of Lefschetz' topology resulted from his desire to prove certain fixed point theorems. Around 1910 L. E. J. Brouwer proved a basic fixed point theorem: Every continuous transformation of an n simplex into itself has at least one fixed point. In a series of papers Lefschetz obtained a much more general result: For any continuous transfor mationfof a topological spaceXinto itself, there is a numberL(f),often called the Lefschetz number, such that ifL(f)~ 0, then the transformationfhas a fixed point.L(f)is defined as follows:finduces a transformation ,f;,of the pth homology groupH,, of the spaceXinto itself; considerH,,as a vector space over the rational numbers and letTr(f;,)be the trace off,, ; thenL(f) = 1( 1)"Tr(f;,).ForL(f) to be well defined, certain restrictions must be placed on X; Lefschetz succeeded in progressively weak ening these restrictions . Lefschetz used the following simple example to explain his fixed point theorem. Letfbe a continuous 535LEFSCHETZ transformation of the interval 0 < x < I into itself . The curve consisting of the points (x,f(x)) represents f. (See Figure 1.) The diagonal 0 < x= v< I represents the identity transformation i, that is, the transformation that sends each point of the interval to itself. The points of intersection (called the co incidences) offand i are the fixed points off. We want a number that is the same for all continuous transformations of the interval 0 <x< 1. The number of coincidences is not constant; f and g, for example, differ in this respect. But if, for a particular transformation, we count the number of crossings fromaboveto below (marked a in the figure) and the number of crossings from belowto above (marked b in the figure), and if we subtract the latter from the former, we get a number (here, I) that is the same for all continuous transformations of an interval into itself. That is, for this space (the interval 0 <x< 1), the Lefschetz number L(f) is 1. SinceL(f)is not zero, any continuous transfor mation of 0 < x < I into itself has a fixed point. (It is intuitively clear that any continuous curve passing from the left side of the square to the right side must intersect the diagonal .) In 1923 Lefschetz proved this fixed point theorem for compact orientable manifolds . Since an n cell is not a manifold, this result did not include the Brouwer fixed point theorem. By introducing the concept of relative homology groups, Lefschetz in 1927 extended his theorem to manifolds with boundary; his theorem then included Brouwer's. He continued to seek generalizations of the theorem; in 1927 he proved it for any finite complex, and in 1936 for any locally connected space. Lefschetz studied fixed points as part of a more general study of coincidences . I and g are transformations of spaceXinto spaceY,the points x of X such that f(x) = g(x) are called the coincidences off and g . One can prove that under certain conditions two transformations must have coincidences for ex ample, in Figure 1, iffandgare continuous and f isabove g at 0 and below g at 1, then the number of times./'crosses g from above to below (marked a) minus the number of timesfcrosses g from below to above (marked f3) is necessarily I . In the course of this work Lefschetz invented many of the basic tools of algebraic topology. He made extensive use of product spaces; he developed intersection theory, including the theory of the in tersection ring of a manifold; and he made essential contributions to various kinds of homology theory, notably relative homology, singular homology, and cohomology. A by product of Lefschetz' work on fixed points


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FIGURE I. was his duality theorem, which provided a bridge between the classical duality theorems of Poincare and of Alexander. The Lefschetz duality theorem states that the p dimensional Betti number of an orientable n dimensional manifoldMwith regular boundaryLequals the (n p) dimensional Betti num ber ofMmoduloL(that is, withoutL).Figure 2 shows an oriented 2 manifoldMwith regular boundaryLin three parts, one exterior and two interior. The absolute 1 cycles c, andc,generate the 1 dimensional Betti group ofMwith boundary L, and the relative I cyclesd,andd,generate the relative 1 dimensional Betti group of MmoduloL. Thus the I dimensional Betti numbers of MandM modulo L are both 2. Cuts alongd,andd,turn the 2 manifold into a 2 cell . (A full exposition of Lef schetz' fixed point theorem and his duality theorem is in hisIntroduction to Topology,1949.) During his years as professor at Princeton (1924 1953), Lefschetz was the center of an active group of topologists . HisTopology(1930) and hisAlgebraic Topology(1942) presented comprehensive accounts of the field and were extremely influential. Indeed,(0,1) (0,0) 53 6x these hooks firmly established the use of the terms "topology" (rather than "analysis situs") and "al gehraic topology" (rather than "combinatorial to pology") . (A thorough review by Norman Steenrod of Lefschetz' work and influence in algebraic to pology appears inAlgebraic Geometry and Topology, 1957 .) Lefschetz was an editor ofAnnals of Mathematics from 1928 to 1958, and it was primarily his efforts insisting on the highest standards, soliciting man uscripts, and securing rapid publication of the most important papers that made theAnnalsone of the world's foremost mathematical journals. As Steenrod put it, "The importance to American mathematicians of a first class journal is that it sets high standards for them to aim at. In this somewhat indirect manner, Lefschetz profoundly affected the development of mathematics in the United States ." There was another way in which Lefschetz con tributed to the beginning of the publication of ad vanced mathematics in the United States . As late as the 1930's the American Mathematical Society, whose Colloquium Publications included books by


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FIGURE 2. Lefschetz in 1930 and 1942, was almost the only U.S. publisher of advanced mathematics books. However, two important series of advanced math ematics monographs and textbooks began in 1938 and 1940: the Princeton Mathematical Series and the Annals of Mathematics Studies, both initiated by A. W. Tucker, student and colleague of Lefschetz. Lefschetz wrote two important books for the former series (1949, 1953) and wrote or edited six books for the latter. In 1943 Lefschetz was asked to consult for the U.S. Navy at the David Taylor Model Basin near Washington, D.C. Working with Nicholas Minorsky, he studied guidance systems and the stability of ships, and became acquainted with the work of Soviet mathematicians on nonlinear mechanics and control theory. Lefschetz recognized that the geo metric theory of differential equations, which had begun with the work of Poincare and A. M. Lia punov, could be fruitfully applied, and his back ground in algebraic geometry and topology proved useful. From 1943 to the end of his life, Lefschetz gave most of his attention to differential equations, doing research and encouraging others . Lefschetz was almost sixty years old when he turned to differential equations, yet he did important original work . He studied the solutions of analytic differential equations near singular points and gave a complete characterization, for a two dimensional system, of the solution curves passing through an isolated critical point in the neighborhood of the critical point. Much of his work focused on nonlinear differential equations and on dissipative (as distinct 53 7from conservative) dynamic systems. This work contributed to the theory of nonlinear controls and to the study of structural stability of systems. The Russian topologist L. S. Pontriagin, who was a good friend of Lefschetz' both before and after the war, also turned to control theory as a result of his wartime work. (Lawrence Markus' "Solomon Lefschetz: An Appreciation in Memoriam" contains a more detailed account of Lefschetz' work and influence on dif ferential equations.) In 1946 the newly established Office of Naval Research provided the funding for a differential equations project, directed by Lefschetz, at Prince ton. This soon became a leading center for the study of ordinary differential equations, and the project continued at Princeton for five years after Lefschetz' retirement in 1953 . In 1957 he established a math ematics center under the auspices of the Research Institute for Advanced Study (RIAS), a branch of the Glen L. Martin Company of Baltimore (now Martin Marietta). In 1964 Lefschetz and many of the other mathematicians in his group at RIAS moved to Brown University to form the Center for Dy namical Systems (later named the Lefschetz Center for Dynamical Systems) . J. P. LaSalle, who had spent the year 1946 1947 with the differential equa tions project at Princeton and who was Lefschetz' second in command at RIAS, became director at the Brown center. Lefschetz helped to found the Journal of Differential Equationsand served as an editor for some fifteen years. He continued his work at Brown until 1970. Lefschetz translated two Russian books on dif


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