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1.5 Thesis organization
Name: 1.5 Thesis organization
Pages: 312
Year: 2013
Language: English
File Size: 1.92 MB
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Abstract Adoption Process of IT Innovations in Organizations i Abstract Several models have been developed for understanding and predicting innovation adoption in organizations and literature has identified several factors that impact the adoption and implementation of Information Technology (IT). This research examines the process of adoption of IT innovations in organizations. The study explores the processes involved in the adoption of IT and verifies the key factors that influence IT innovation adoption in organizations. Using a systematic literature review, the study developed a conceptual model of IT innovation adoption in organizations. The model is a theoretical combination of Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory, Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and a framework which contains characteristics of innovation, organization, environment, chief executive officer (CEO) and user acceptance. The model represents IT innovation adoption as a stage based process, progressing from initiation to adoption decision to implementation. The study aggregated findings of past research on IT adoption to identify key factors that influences IT adoption in organizations. The study performed a meta analysis of innovation, organization, environment, CEOs and user acceptance determinants to assess the magnitude and the strength of these factors on IT innovation adoption. Results confirmed that relative advantage, compatibility, cost, observability and trialability are strong determinants of IT innovation adoption. In terms of organizational context, IS department size, top management support, organizational size, IT expertise, product champion, IS infrastructure, information intensity, resources and specialization was found influential in the adoption of IT. As for environmental characteristics, the meta analysis verified the significance of external pressure, government support and competitive pressure. Meta analysis results verified that CEO innovativeness, attitude and IT knowledge as key determinants. The findings confirmed the importance of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm and facilitating conditions for the user acceptance of IT in organizations.


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Acknowledgement Adoption Process of IT Innovations in Organizations ii Acknowledgements I am grateful to Allah almighty for his guidance and blessing throughout my academic life. I would like to dedicate this work to my beloved mother and father. I would like to give my heartfelt gratefulness to my parents for their constant help, attention and encouragement. I would like to express my sincere gratitude and deepest appreciation to my first supervisor Dr. Steve Counsell for his advice, support and encouragement throughout the completion of this research study. His guidance has been the inspiration for the achievement of this academic journey. Valuable comments and insightful suggestions by Steve have been exceedingly precious to me and without his thorough guidance, I would never been able to come this far. Special thanks to my wife for her support, help, patience and understanding during my PhD degree. Last but not least, I thank all my fellow colleagues and helpful staff in the Department of Information Systems and Computing at Brunel University.


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Publications Adoption Process of IT Innovations in Organizations iii Publications Journal papers published 1. Abdul Hameed, M., Counsell, S. and Swift, S. (2012). A Conceptual Model for the Process of IT Innovation Adoption in Organizations. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 29 (3), pp. 358 390. 2. Abdul Hameed, M., Counsell, S. and Swift, S. (2012). A Meta analysis of Relationship between Organizational Characteristics and IT Innovation Adoption in Organizations. Information and Management, 49 (5), pp. 218 232. 3. Abdul Hameed, M. and Counsell, S. (2012). Assessing the Influence of Environmental and CEO Characteristics for Adoption of Information Technology in Organizations. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 7 (1), pp. 64 84. Journal papers accepted for publication 4. Abdul Hameed, M. and Counsell, S. (submitted on June 2012). User Acceptance Determinants of Information Technology Innovation in Organizations. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management. (Accepted). 5. Abdul Hameed, M. and Counsell, S. (submitted on July 2012). Establishing Relationships between Innovation Characteristics and IT Innovation Adoption in Organizations: A Meta analysis Approach. International Journal of Innovation Management. (Accepted).


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Table of Contents Adoption Process of IT Innovations in Organizations iv Table of Contents ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................... ii PUBLICATIONS .............................................................................................. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................. iv LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................... xii LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................... xv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................ 2 1.2 Research background ............................................................................. 3 1.3 Current gaps in IT adoption research ...................................................... 4 1.4 Research aim and objectives ................................................................... 6 1.5 Thesis organization ................................................................................ 6 CHAPTER 2: BACKGROUND RESEARCH 2.1 Introduction.......................................................................................... 10 2.2 Definitions of IT innovation adoption ................................................... 11 2.2.1 Definition of innovation ......................................................... 11 2.2.2 Definition of Information Technology (IT) ............................. 12 2.2.3 Definition of IT adoption and diffusion .................................. 12 2.3 Reason for IT adoption in organizations .............................................. 13 2.4 Issues in studying IT innovation adoption ........................................... 14 2.4.1 Stages of IT innovation adoption ............................................ 15 2.4.2 Different levels of analysis and perspectives .......................... 18 2.5 Theories of innovation adoption .......................................................... 20 2.5.1 Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Theory ................................... 21 2.5.2 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)......................................... 23 2.5.3 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) .................................. 23 2.5.4 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) 2 ............................... 25 2.5.5 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ...................................... 26


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Table of Contents Adoption Process of IT Innovations in Organizations v 2.5.6 Perceived Characteristics of Innovating (PCI) ........................ 27 2.5.7 Tri more model ...................................................................... 28 2.5.8 Task Technology Fit (TTF) ................................................... 29 2.5.9 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) ............................................................................................ 30 2.6 Frameworks for organizational innovation adoption ............................ 31 2.6.1 Technology Organization Environment (TOE) model ............ 32 2.7 Determinants of IT innovation adoption in organizations .................... 33 2.8 IT innovation adoption success and failure .......................................... 34 2.9 Summary ............................................................................................ 37 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 39 3.2 Research question ............................................................................... 39 3.3 Nature of the research ......................................................................... 41 3.4 Purpose of the research ....................................................................... 42 3.5 The structure of the current research ................................................... 43 3.5.1 Theoretical analysis................................................................ 43 3.5.2 Statistical analysis .................................................................. 44 3.5.3 Interpretation phase ................................................................ 44 3.6 Research philosophy ........................................................................... 45 3.6.1 Ontology ................................................................................ 45 3.6.2 Epistemological considerations .............................................. 46 3.7 Research approach .............................................................................. 48 3.7.1 Deductive versus inductive research ....................................... 48 3.7.2 Qualitative versus quantitative research .................................. 49 3.8 Research design .................................................................................. 51 3.9 Systemic Literature Review (SLR) ...................................................... 52 3.9.1 Application of SLR ................................................................ 53 3.9.2 Evaluating data collected for SLR .......................................... 53 3.10 Meta analyses ..................................................................................... 54 3.10.1 Advantages of meta analysis .................................................. 55 3.10.2 Limitations of meta analysis .................................................. 57


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Table of Contents Adoption Process of IT Innovations in Organizations vi 3.10.2.1 Publication bias and file drawer problem ........................... 57 3.10.2.2 Garbage in and garbage out................................................ 58 3.10.2.3 Combining Apples with Oranges ....................................... 58 3.10.2.4 Small sample size .............................................................. 58 3.10.3 Application of meta analysis for the research ......................... 59 3.11 Research Methodology ....................................................................... 59 3.12 Sample selection and searching for studies .......................................... 60 3.13 Summary ............................................................................................ 61 CHAPTER 4: PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR THE ADOPTION OF IT INNOVATION ADOPTION 4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 63 4.2 Constructing a conceptual model for IT innovation adoption ............... 63 4.3 Process of IT innovation adoption ....................................................... 64 4.4 Study context ...................................................................................... 65 4.5 Inclusion and exclusion criteria for systemic review............................ 66 4.6 Data collection .................................................................................... 68 4.6.1 Survey questionnaire .............................................................. 69 4.6.2 Data extraction ....................................................................... 69 4.7 Coding of studies ................................................................................ 70 4.8 Characteristics of the reviewed literature ............................................. 71 4.9 Theoretical model for IT innovation adoption ..................................... 74 4.9.1 Limitation of innovation adoption theories ............................. 76 4.9.2 Integrating innovation adoption theories and frameworks ....... 76 4.10 Determinant of IT innovation adoption ............................................... 84 4.10.1 Innovation characteristics ....................................................... 84 4.10.2 Organizational characteristics ................................................. 85 4.10.3 Environmental characteristics ................................................. 87 4.10.4 CEO characteristics ................................................................ 88 4.10.5 User Acceptance Characteristics ............................................ 89 4.11 Summary ............................................................................................ 92


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Table of Contents Adoption Process of IT Innovations in Organizations vii CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS OF THE DETERMINANTS OF IT INNOVATION ADOPTION 5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 94 5.2 Studies examining the determinants of IT innovation adoption ............ 95 5.2.1 Interpreting the results of past studies on IT innovation adoption ...................................................................................................95 5.3 Aggregating the findings of past studies and meta analysis ................. 96 5.4 Meta analysis procedure ..................................................................... 97 5.5 Moderators for the relationships between determinants and IT innovation adoption ...................................................................................... 100 5.5.1 Stage of innovation .............................................................. 100 5.5.2 Type of innovation ............................................................... 101 5.5.3 Type of organization ............................................................ 102 5.5.4 Size of organization ............................................................. 103 5.6 Study selection for meta analysis ...................................................... 103 5.6.1 Coding for meta analysis...................................................... 104 5.7 Selection of determinants of IT innovation adoption for the meta analysis ........................................................................................................ 104 5.7.1 Innovation characteristics ..................................................... 105 5.7.1.1 Relative Advantage ........................................................... 106 5.7.1.2 Cost ................................................................................... 107 5.7.1.3 Complexity ........................................................................ 107 5.7.1.4 Compatibility .................................................................... 107 5.7.1.5 Trialability ........................................................................ 108 5.7.1.6 Observability ..................................................................... 108 5.7.2 Organizational characteristic ................................................ 108 5.7.2.1 Top Management Support ................................................. 110 5.7.2.2 Organizational Size ........................................................... 111 5.7.2.3 IT Expertise ....................................................................... 111 5.7.2.4 Product Champion ............................................................. 112 5.7.2.5 Centralization .................................................................... 112 5.7.2.6 Formalization .................................................................... 112 5.7.2.7 IS Department Size ............................................................ 113


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Table of Contents Adoption Process of IT Innovations in Organizations viii 5.7.2.8 IS Infrastructure ................................................................ 113 5.7.2.9 Information Intensity ......................................................... 113 5.7.2.10 Resources ........................................................................ 114 5.7.2.11 Specialization .................................................................. 114 5.7.3 Environmental characteristics ............................................... 115 5.7.3.1 Competitive Pressure ......................................................... 116 5.7.3.2 External Pressure ............................................................... 116 5.7.3.3 Government Support ......................................................... 116 5.7.4 CEO characteristics .............................................................. 117 5.7.4.1 CEO Innovativeness .......................................................... 118 5.7.4.2 CEO Attitude..................................................................... 118 5.7.4.3 CEO IT knowledge ............................................................ 119 5.7.4.4 ............................................................. 119 5.7.4.5 .................................................................. 120 5.7.4.6 .............................................................. 120 5.7.4.7 .............................................. 121 5.7.5 User Acceptance characteristics ........................................... 121 5.7.5.1 Perceived usefulness .......................................................... 122 5.7.5.2 Perceived ease of use ......................................................... 123 5.7.5.3 Subjective norm ................................................................ 123 5.7.5.4 Facilitating conditions ....................................................... 123 5.8 Summary .......................................................................................... 124 CHAPTER 6: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF THE META ANALYSIS 6.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 126 6.2 Results of innovation characteristics ................................................. 126 6.2.1 Results of aggregated tests of significance............................ 127 6.2.2 Meta analysis: Innovation characteristics results .................. 128 6.2.3 Moderator effect results: Innovation characteristics .............. 129 6.2.3.1 Findings of moderator effect on relative advantage ............ 129 6.2.3.2 Findings of moderator effect on cost .................................. 130 6.2.3.3 Findings of moderator effect on complexity ....................... 131


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