Download OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light Emitting Diodes PDF

OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light Emitting Diodes
Name: OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light Emitting Diodes
Author: daniel j. gaspar
Pages: 492
Year: 2015
Language: English
File Size: 19.31 MB
Downloads: 0
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Cover Image. A flexible transparent organic small molecule light emitting panels (see Chapter 6, "Small Molecule Funda mentals" by Xin Xu, Michael S. Weaver). Courtesy of Universal Display Corporation. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487 2742 2015 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Version Date: 20150209 International Standard Book Number 13: 978 1 4665 1519 2 (eBook PDF) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the valid ity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or uti lized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopy ing, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http:// www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978 750 8400. CCC is a not for profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com


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vii Contents Preface ................................................................ix Editors ................................................................xi Contributors ...........................................................xiii 1 Introduction ........................................................1 Evgueni Polikarpov and Daniel J. Gaspar SECTION I Materials 2 Substrates .........................................................7 Abhinav Bhandari and Daniel J. Gaspar 3 OLED Encapsulation ................................................25 Lorenza Moro, Damien Boesch, and Xianghui Zeng 4 Transparent Electrodes for OLED Devices ..............................67 Roman Korotkov and Gary S . Silverman 5 Charge Injection Layers .............................................95 Mark T. Greiner and Zheng Hong Lu 6 Small Molecule Fundamentals ......................................127 Xin Xu and Michael S. Weaver 7 Electron Transport Materials ........................................147 Hisahiro Sasabe and Junji Kido 8 Hole Transport Materials ...........................................173 Evgueni Polikarpov 9 Conductivity Doping ...............................................189 Falk Loeser, Max Tietze, Bj rn L ssem, and Jan Blochwitz Nimoth 10 Development of Host Materials for High Ef ciency Organic Light Emitting Devices ......................................235 Asanga B. Padmaperuma


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ix Preface What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? ese are questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non experts, graduate students, and scientists and engineers working in the eld who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic materials sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. e stack of layers can be very thin and has many varia tions, including exible and/or transparent materials. e organic material can be poly meric or composed of small molecules, and may include inorganic components. e electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modi ed to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uni form light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. e devices can be switched on and o very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED eld is really only about half that age with the rst high e ciency OLED demon strated in 1987. us, we expect to see exciting advances in the science, technology, and commercialization in the coming years. We hope that this book helps to advance the eld in some small way. Contributors to this book are experts from top academic institutions, industry, and national laboratories who provide comprehensive and up to date coverage of the rapidly evolving eld of OLEDs. Furthermore, this work collects in one place, for the rst time, key topics across the eld of OLEDs, from fundamental chemistry and physics, to prac tical materials science and engineering topics, to aspects of design and manufacturing. e chapters together synthesize and put into context information scattered throughout the literature for easy review in one book. e scope re ects the necessity to focus on new technological challenges brought about by the transition to manufacturing. In the rst section, all materials of construction of the OLED device are covered, from sub strate to encapsulation. In the second section, for the rst time, additional challenges in devices and processing are addressed. is book is geared toward a broad audience, including materials scientists, device phys icists, synthetic chemists, and electrical engineers. Furthermore, it makes a great intro duction to scientists in industry and academia, as well as graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin lms. is book is a comprehensive source for OLED R&D professionals from all backgrounds and institutions.


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