Download Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide PDF

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide
Name: Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide
Author: mark dye
Pages: 560
Year: 2007
Language: English
File Size: 8.27 MB
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ii Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Mark A. Dye Rick McDonald Antoon W. Rufi Copyright 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Press logo is a trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Printing November 2007 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Dye, Mark A. Network fundamentals : CCNA exploration companion guide/Mark A. Dye, Rick McDonald, Antoon W. Rufi. p. cm. ISBN 13: 978 1 58713 208 7 (hbk. : CD ROM) ISBN 10: 1 58713 208 7 (hbk. : CD ROM) 1. Electronic data processing personnel Certification. 2. Computer networks Examinations Study guides. I. McDonald, Rick. II. Rufi,Antoon W. III. Title. IV. Title: CCNA exploration companion guide. QA76.3.D94 2007 004.6 dc22 2007038852 ISBN 13: 978 1 58713 208 7 ISBN 10: 1 58713 208 7 Trademark Acknowledgments All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc., cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Managing Editor Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editor Tonya Simpson Copy Editor Written Elegance, Inc. Technical Editors Martin S. Anderson, Gerlinde Brady Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Indexer Tim Wright Proofreader Gill Editorial Services 01_20870fm.qxd 10/11/07 10:11 AM Page ii


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Warning and Disclaimer This book is designed to provide information about the Cisco Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration course. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an "as is" basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc., shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or progr ams that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc. Corporate and Government Sales The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, train ing goals, marketing focus, and branding interests. For more information, please contact: U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 1 800 382 3419 [email protected] For sales outside the United States please contact: International [email protected] Feedback Information At Cisco Press, our goal is to create in depth technical books of the highest quality an d value. Each book is crafted with care and precision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technical community. Readers' feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, you can contact us through email at [email protected] Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. We greatly appreciate your assistance. iii 01_20870fm.qxd 10/11/07 10:11 AM Page iii


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About the Authors Mark A. Dye was the technology manager and training manager for the Bevill Center at Gadsden State Community College, where he also managed and taught in the Cisco Academy program. He now works full time as an assessment and curriculum developer with Cisco. Mark also has maintained a private information technology consulting business since 1985. Mark s 30+ year career has included roles as biomedical instrumentation tech nician, field service engineer, customer service supervisor, network engineer, and instructor. Rick McDonald teaches computer and networking courses at the University of Alaska Southeast in Ketchikan, Alaska. He is developing methods for delivering hands on training via distance in Alaska using web conferencing and NETLAB tools. Rick worked in the air line industry for several years before returning to full time teaching. He taught CCNA and CCNP courses in the Cisco Networking Academy in North Carolina and was a CCNA instructor trainer. Antoon "Tony" W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the United States Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. About the Technical Reviewers Martin S. Andersonis an instructor and program director for computer science technology at BGSU Firelands. BGSU Firelands, located in Huron, Ohio, is a regional branch college of Bowling Green State University. He has more than 30 years of experience in network computers, beginning with his family s small business in the mid 1970s. He has taught the CCNA curriculum at BGSU Firelands since 2002. Gerlinde Bradyhas been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a masters degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a masters degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training. iv Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 01_20870fm.qxd 10/11/07 10:11 AM Page iv


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Acknowledgments From Mark Dye: I want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley with Cisco Press, whose unending patience made this book possible. I also want to thank the technical editors, Marty Anderson and Gerlinde Brady, for their insight. Additionally, I want to thank the other authors, Rick McDonald and Tony Rufi, who quietly and professionally made their portions of the book come together. I want to say a special thanks to Telethia Wills with Cisco, who I have worked with for a number of years. Telethia has guided me through many different projects and allowed me to work with so many wonderful people. From Rick McDonald: I wish to thank my two talented coauthors, Mark and Tony, who were generous with their time and knowledge. They were under heavy workloads when the project began and held up throughout. Mary Beth did me a great kindness in bringing me to the tabl e with you. Gerlinde Brady and Marty Anderson did an excellent job as technical editors for my contri butions. I am aware of the time and effort it took to cover so much so thoroughly, and your suggestions and corrections have had a direct impact on the quality of the content. Mary Beth Ray has been the calming and guiding force behind the publicat ion of this book. I wish to thank her for her vision and for her encouragement when I lost sight of it. Mary Beth s ability to guide the project and adapt to the ever changing needs of students is to be loudly applauded. Mary Beth, thank you for your confidence and patience. You had to use both quite generously, and I appreciate it. Dayna Isley once again amazed me with her ability to spot errors and clarify the u nneces sarily complex sentences I would submit to her. There were times on the phone I was sure I could hear her eyes rolling, but she kept patiently guiding me through the processes of pub lishing with humor and kindness. I wish to also thank Sarah Strickling at the University of Alaska Southeast for her helpful feedback and suggestions. Thanks also to Chris Lott and Christen Bouffard of the Center for Distance Education at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks for helping me understand some of the many ways imagination and technology are changing the way people think, learn, and work. I have tried to pass some of those ideas on within this book. From Tony Rufi: I would like to thank my coauthors, Mark Dye and Rick McDonald, for helping make writ ing this book such a joy. I would also like to thank ECPI College of Technology for all the support through the years, especially in reference to my quest for Cisco knowledge. vi Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 01_20870fm.qxd 10/11/07 10:11 AM Page vi


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Contents Introduction xx Chapter 1 Living in a Network Centric World 1 Objectives 1 Key Terms 1 Communicating in a Network Centric World 2 Networks Supporting the Way We Live 2 Examples of Today's Popular Communication Tools 4 Networks Supporting the Way We Learn 5 Networks Supporting the Way We Work 7 Networks Supporting the Way We Play 8 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives 8 What Is Communication? 8 Quality of Communication 9 The Network as a Platform 10 Communicating over Networks 10 Elements of a Network 10 Converged Networks 15 The Architecture of the Internet 16 The Network Architecture 17 Fault Tolerant Network Architecture 19 Scalable Network Architecture 20 Providing Quality of Service 21 Providing Network Security 23 Trends in Networking 25 Where Is It All Going? 25 Networking Career Opportunities 27 Summary 28 Activities and Labs 28 Check Your Understanding 29 Challenge Questions and Activities 32 To Learn More 32 Chapter 2 Communicating over the Network 33 Objectives 33 Key Terms 33 The Platform for Communications 34 The Elements of Communication 35 Communicating the Messages 35 Components of the Network 37 End Devices and Their Role on the Network 37 viii Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 01_20870fm.qxd 10/11/07 10:11 AM Page viii


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Intermediary Devices and Their Role on the Network 38 Network Media 39 LANs, WANs, and Internetworks 41 Local Area Networks 41 Wide Area Networks 41 The Internet: A Network of Networks 42 Network Representations 43 Protocols 44 Rules That Govern Communications 44 Network Protocols 45 Protocol Suites and Industry Standards 46 Interaction of Protocols 46 Technology Independent Protocols 47 Using Layered Models 47 The Benefits of a Layered Model 48 Protocol and Reference Models 48 TCP/IP Model 49 Communication Process 50 Protocol Data Units and Encapsulation 51 Sending and Receiving Process 52 OSI Model 53 Comparing the OSI Model to the TCP/IP Model 54 Network Addressing 55 Addressing in the Network 55 Getting Data to the End Device 55 Getting Data Through the Internetwork 56 Getting Data to the Right Application 57 Summary 58 Activities and Labs 58 Check Your Understanding 59 Challenge Questions and Activities 61 To Learn More 62 Chapter 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 63 Objectives 63 Key Terms 63 Applications: The Interface Between the Networks 65 OSI and TCP/IP Model 66 Application Layer Software 69 User Applications, Services, and Application Layer Protocols 70 Application Layer Protocol Functions 71 ix 01_20870fm.qxd 10/11/07 10:11 AM Page ix


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Making Provisions for Applications and Services 71 Client/Server Model 72 Servers 72 Application Layer Services and Protocols 73 Peer to Peer (P2P) Networking and Applications 74 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 76 DNS Services and Protocol 77 WWW Service and HTTP 81 E Mail Services and SMTP/POP Protocols 83 E Mail Server Processes: MTA and MDA 84 FTP 86 DHCP 87 File Sharing Services and SMB Protocol 89 P2P Services and Gnutella Protocol 90 Telnet Services and Protocol 91 Summary 93 Activities and Labs 93 Check Your Understanding 94 Challenge Questions and Activities 96 To Learn More 97 Chapter 4 OSI Transport Layer 99 Objectives 99 Key Terms 99 Roles of the Transport Layer 101 Purpose of the Transport Layer 101 Supporting Reliable Communication 105 TCP and UDP 107 Port Addressing 108 Segmentation and Reassembly: Divide and Conquer 112 TCP: Communicating with Reliability 114 Making Conversations Reliable 114 TCP Server Processes 115 TCP Connection Establishment and Termination 116 TCP Three Way Handshake 116 TCP Session Termination 118 TCP Acknowledgment with Windowing 120 TCP Retransmission 121 TCP Congestion Control: Minimizing Segment Loss 122 x Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 01_20870fm.qxd 10/11/07 10:11 AM Page x


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