Download The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Science of Everything PDF

The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Science of Everything
Name: The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Science of Everything
Author: steve miller
Pages: 369
Year: 2008
Language: English
File Size: 7.73 MB
Downloads: 0
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/:>6/ 0==9A Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario M4P 2Y3, Canada (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd., 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd.) Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Aus tralia Group Pty. Ltd.) Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi"110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), 67 Apollo Drive, Rosedale, North Shore, Auckland 1311, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd.) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty.) Ltd., 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd., Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England 1]^g`WUVb & Pg AbSdS ;WZZS` All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the pub lisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of information contained herein. For information, address Alpha Books, 800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46240. THE COMPLETE IDIOT S GUIDE TO and Design are registered trademarks of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. International Standard Book Number: Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2008922783 Note: This publication contains the opinions and ideas of its author. It is intended to provide helpful and informa tive material on the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the author and publisher are not engaged in rendering professional services in the book. If the reader requires personal assistance or advice, a compe tent professional should be consulted. The author and publisher specifically disclaim any responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk, personal or otherwise, which is incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents of this book. Most Alpha books are available at special quantity discounts for bulk purchases for sales promotions, premiums, fund raising, or educational use. Special books, or book excerpts, can also be created to fit specific needs. For details, write: Special Markets, Alpha Books, 375 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014. Publisher: Marie Butler Knight Editorial Director/Acquiring Editor: Mike Sanders Senior Managing Editor: Billy Fields Development Editor: Michael Thomas Production Editor: Kayla Dugger Copy Editor: Amy BorelliCartoonist: Chris Sabatino Cover Designer: Bill Thomas Book Designer: Trina Wurst Indexer: Johnna Vanhoose Dinse Layout: Brian Massey Proofreaders: Laura Caddell, Mary Hunt 978 1 4406 5199 1


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1] S a Ob O 5ZOQS >O`b ( :]]YWU Ob bVS CWdS`aS /`]cR Ca 1 What Is Science? 3 Science is a way of looking at things. Even though you may not have the background to understand the details, every one can understand science. 2 A Look at Theories 15 A theory is a tested idea that explains what has been observed. This chapter takes a look at a few theories that are behind current research. >O`b ( >VgaWQOZ AQWSQSa % 3 Physics"Energy and Motion 29 Everything that moves, from the planets to the electrons flowing through a power cord, follows certain rules. If you understand how motion works, you can see why you don t fall out of a rollercoaster as it loops. 4 Physics"Light and Sound 43 Light and sound transfer energy from one place to another. Most of the information you use every day arrives in the form of light waves or sound waves. 5 Physics"Fluids 57 How are fluids"liquids and gases"different from solid things? You ll even find how the air can support a jetliner. 6 Chemistry"Matter 69 Chemistry is the study of matter, the stuff that everything is made of. And each different type of matter has its own properties. 7 Chemistry"Matter on the Small Scale 81 To find out how things work, you need to look at them really closely. When you know what the tiny parts are doing, you can understand why popcorn pops. 8 Chemistry"Interactions of Matter 95 As atoms and molecules interact, in great numbers, amazing things can happen.


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BVS 1]b a 5cWRS b] bVS AQWSQS ]T 3dS`gbVWU dW >O`b !( 0W]Z]UWQOZ AQWSQSa ' 9 Biology"Plants, Animals, and Others 111 Everything that living things do is targeted to surviving and reproducing. The rest is in the details. 10 Biology"Humans 125 Your body is a system made up of lots of smaller systems that all work together. And it is all pretty complicated. 11 Biology"Genetics and DNA 137 DNA is a long molecule that carries the complete instruc tion book for your cells. This chapter describes what living things inherit when DNA passes from one generation to the next"and why. 12 Biology"Medicine and Health 151 The body s systems are complex and sometimes they break down. This chapter also covers hordes of tiny invaders who would love to live inside of you: bacteria and viruses. >O`b "( 3O`bV OR A^OQS AQWSQSa $# 13 Geology"The Ground Below 167 Earth is a constantly changing planet. As devastating as they can seem, earthquakes represent just a bit of resettling as things move around. 14 Meteorology and Hydrology"Wind and Water 181 Air and water flow around us constantly. Sometimes the patterns of their flow are easy to see, and sometimes not. There is a reason that there are no hurricanes in Antarctica. 15 Ecology and Environmental Science 195 The quality of our lives depends on nature continuing to function. When everything is one big system, how do you change one thing without starting a string of unexpected results? 16 Astronomy 209 Moon, sun, planets, and stars have always fascinated people, and with good reason. 17 Cosmology 223 Here we take a look at some of the really big questions, such as how did the universe begin and where is it going?


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dWW >O`b #( BSQV]Z]Ug >cbbWU 7b W ] >`OQbWQS !# 18 Science and Technology 237 Science asks the why questions, but technology is more interested in what to do with the answers. 19 The Electronic World 251 The movement of electrons, whether through microscopic transistors or miles of wire, affect everything we do. 20 Medical Technology"Looking Inside the Body 265 When technology is applied to medicine, you get the amaz ing machines that can take a picture of your inside from the outside. >O`b $( AQWSQS( >Oab b] 4cbc`S %% 21 A Few Big Ideas 279 Science is built on big ideas. Here we take a look at some of the concepts used to explain the universe. Big ideas range in size from atoms to everything. 22 Some Important Scientists 291 Take a look at some of the people behind science. What were they thinking? 23 Some Unanswered Questions 301 It seems that each answer poses a range of new questions. Here are some of the current questions that are keeping scientists busy. 24 Technology into the Future 311 Yesterday the phone was a box connected to the wall. Today it is a tiny fold up phone/camera/computer/photo album in your pocket. Here s a heads up on what may be around the corner. /^^SRWfSa A Science Websites 321 B Professional Associations 325 Index 327 1] S a Ob O 5ZOQS


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1] S a >O`b ( :]]YWU Ob bVS CWdS`aS /`]cR Ca EVOb 7a AQWSQS ! Is science a natural human activity? ..............................................4 There s a Method in That Science ................................................5 Who does Science? ........................................................................ 6 Science as a Search for Knowledge .................................................7 Science and Technology ..................................................................8 Everyone Can Understand Scientific Ideas ...................................8 What to Watch Out For ................................................................9 Getting It Right and Getting It Wrong in the News ....................10 How Statistics Come into Play ....................................................11 Science Is Always Changing ........................................................11 Sorry, but That Is Not Science ....................................................12 / :]]Y Ob BVS]`WSa # What is a scientific theory? .........................................................16 A Few Theories That May Sound Familiar ...............................17 Evolution (Life Is Change) ..........................................................17 Global Climate Change (Not Just Warming) ............................19 Plate Tectonics ........................................................................ .....22 Relativity: Easier to Understand Than You Think ....................23 String Theory ........................................................................ .....25 Chaos Theory (That Butterfly in Brazil) ....................................26 >O`b ( >VgaWQOZ AQWSQSa % ! >VgaWQa 3S`Ug OR ;]bW]\n ' How do spacecraft reach the moon if they use most of their fuel leaving Earth? ............................................................30 How do airbags protect automobile passengers? ........................31 Can you really move Earth with a long enough lever? ..............32 Why does an extension bar make a wrench work better? ..........34 Why do figure skaters spin faster when they pull their arms in? ........................................................................ ..............35 What keeps riders in their seats on a looping roller coaster? ......36 How does the space station stay in orbit? ...................................38


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