2 "But I have chosen Jerusalem "so that My name will be there, ... ." (2 Chronicles 6:6) "... Jerusalem is where My name will remain forever. (33:4) I stand with the name of Yahowah (Y H W H) and his son Yahosha (Y H W S A) vs. the name of Allah / Muhammad to STOP! Islamization of America and the neo Nazi / neo Marxist "fellow travelers" of Islam *HCSB Holman Christian Standard Bible 2010 edition ** "I Am" 1 x OT translation of eh yah first person singular of hayah (H Y H) v. 14) ** "Yahweh He Is" 6,828 x OT translation of yih wah third person singular of hawah (H W H) (v. 15) See info boxes, pages 102 and 103 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Art I stand with... the name of Yahowah (He Is) the people of Yahowah (Judah / Israel Joel 3:1, 2) the city of Yahowah (Jerusalem 2 Chronicles 6:6; 33:4) "... I Am** ... ." (Exodus 3:14) "... Yahweh** ... "... this is my name forever; "... how I am to be remembered ... ." (Exodus 3:15 HCSB*) I stand with the name of Yahowah and his son Yahowshavs. the name of Allah to STOP! Islamization of America *HCSB Holman Christian Standard Bible 2010 edition ** "I Am" 1 x OT translation of ehyah 1stperson singular of hayah(v. 14) ** "Yahweh He Is" 6,828 x OT translation of ehwah 3rdperson singular of hawah(v. 15) See info boxes, pages 102 and 103 //////////////////////////////////// Art I stand with... the name of Yahowah (He Is) the people of Yahowah (Judah / Israel Joel 3:1, 2) the city of Yahowah (Jerusalem 2 Chronicles 6:6; 33:4) "... I Am** ... ." (Exodus 3:14) "... Yahweh** ... "... this is my name forever;
3 "... how I am to be remembered ... ." (Exodus 3:15 HCSB*) I stand with the name of Yahowah and his son Yahowshavs. the name of Allah to STOP! Islamization of America *HCSB Holman Christian Standard Bible 2010 edition ** "I Am" 1 x OT translation of ehyah (v. 14) ** "Yahweh He Is" 6,828 x OT translation of ehwah (v. 15) See info boxes, pages 102 and 103 //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// HYH hayah HWH hawah From BibleWorks ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 491.0(h y )to be, become, exist, happen. This verb appears 3,540 times in Biblical Hebrew, and all of these are in the Qal stem except for twenty one uses of the Niphal. The verb is related to another Hebrew word meaning "to become," h w (only five times: Gen 27:29; Isa 16:4; Eccl 2:22; Eccl 11:3 ; Neh 6:6), and the same verb in Biblical Aramaic,h w (71 times). In Akkadian its phonetic equivalent,ew , means "to turn oneself into, to become like." To express being or existence Akkadian uses notew butbash (much like Ugaritic and Phoeniciankun). Very seldom in the OT is y used to denote either simple existence or the identification of a thing or person. This can be illustrated by a quick glance at almost any page of the KJV on which one will find numerous examples of words such as "is, are, was, were," in italics, indicating that these are additions by the translators for the sake of smoothness, but not in the Hebrew itself. In such cases the Hebrew employs what is known grammatically as a nominal sentence, which we may define most simply as a sentence lacking verb or a copula, for example: I (am) the Lord your God; the Lord (is) a sun and shield; the land (is) good; and in the NT, blessed (are) the poor. This almost total lack of y as a copula or existential particle has led some to use this phenomenon as confirming evidence that "static" thought was alien to the Hebrews, the latter thinking only in "dynamic" categories (see Boman in the bibliography below). An alternative way in Hebrew to express existence besides the nominal sentence is by the particles y sh(positive) and ayin(negative), really another type of nominal sentence "perhaps 'there are' fifty righteous in the city"; " 'there is' no God." Both of these words are more substantival in nature than they are verbal, and in function they resemble the Frenchil y aand the Germanes gibt. There are instances, however, where y is used with a predicate adjective: (a) in the description of a past situation which no longer exists, "The earth was (hay t ) formless and void" (Gen 1:2); (b) in historical narration, "The serpent was (h y ) more subtil than any beast of the field" (Gen 3:1); (c) in the expression of a gnomic truth, "It is not good that man should be (h y t) alone" (Gen 2:18). Notice the juxtaposition of the verbal sentence, withh y and a nominal sentence without it: "You shall be (tihy ) holy for I (am) holy (q d sh n , Lev 19:2). Boman would account for the absence of a copula in the latter part of this phrase by stating that the predicate (holy) is inherent in the subject (God) and hence the copula is unnecessary. He would also add that the first "be" really means "become." To
4 jump from this observation, however, to the conclusion that the basic meaning of "to be" in the Bible is "to become" seems to be unwarranted. Of special import is the use of the verbh y in covenant formulae: I will be your God and you will be my people (Jer 7:23; Jer 11:4; Jer 24:7; Jer 31:33; etc.), and in the context of God's promises of blessings and judgments: and I will make of you a great nation... and you shall be a blessing (Gen 12:2). A frequent, although perhaps misleading, translation ofh y is, as we have noted above, "to come." This can be seen in connection with God's spirit "coming" upon an individual (Jud 11:29; 1Sam 19:20), and in those places where God's word "came" to someone (Gen 15:1; 1Sam 15:10; 2Sam 7:4; Jer 36:1). A final and brief word may be said about the meaning and interpretation of Jehovah/Yahweh. It seems beyond doubt that the name contains the verbh y "to be" (but also see article YHWH). The question is whether or not it is the verb "to be" in the Qal, "He is," or the Hiphil, "He causes to be," a view championed by W. F. Albright. The strongest objection to this latter interpretation is that it necessitates a correction in the reading of the key text in Exo 3:14; "I am that I am." Most likely the name should be translated something like "I am he who is," or "I am he who exists" as reflected by the LXX'sego eimi hov. The echo of this is found surely in the NT, Rev 1:8. More than anything perhaps, the "is ness" of God is expressive both of his presence and his existence. Neither concept can be said to be more important than the other. Bibliography: Barr, James, The Semantics of Biblical Language, Oxford University Press, 1961, esp. pp. 58 72, in opposition to Boman's emphasis on the "dynamic" versus "existential" character ofh y . Boman, T., Hebrew Thought Compared With Greek, trans. J. L. Moreau, London: SCM, 1960, esp. pp. 38 49. Devaux R., "The Revelation of the Divine Name YHWH," in Proclamation and Presence, eds. J. 1. Durham and J. R. Porter, London: SCM, 1970, pp. 48 75, with citation of the appropriate bibliography of studies on the meaning of the Tetragrammaton. Preuss, H. D., "Ich will mit dir Sein," ZAW 80: 139 73. Schild, E., "On Exodus iii 14: 'I am that I am'," VT 4: 296 302. THAT, I, pp. 477 85. V.P.H. /////////////////////////////////////////// 483.0(h w )I,fall.(ASV, RSV. So KJV, by confusion withh w II see below, renders the verb as "be.") (483a)(haww )calamity. (483b)(hayy )calamity. (483c)(hw )disaster. The single OT occurrence ofh w I (Job 37:6) is an imperative, describing physical falling. Its form, h w , has been called "an Arabizing usage" (BDB, p. 217); but more likely the aleph is to differentiate it fromh w II (KB, p. 227). The verbh w I depicts the literal fall of rain and snow (Job 37:6). But its derived nouns speak metaphorically of a fall in fortune. So ayy identifies the calamities that descend on Job (Job 6:2; Job
5 30:13); andhw , those to fall suddenly upon Babylon (Isa 47:11) or upon Judah, "disaster upon disaster" (Ezek 7:26). The commonest noun,haww , advances from an identifying of the fact of troubles (Psa 57:1), such as those brought upon parents by an unwise son (Prov 19:13), to the cause for troubles, i.e. moral failure. Psalm 5:9 may therefore be rendered either, "Their heart is destruction" (RSV) or "wickedness" (KJV, ASV). Other psalms describe a throne of "iniquity" (Psa 94:20) and "wickedness" which rulers devise (Psa 52:2 evidently Saul himself was the "mighty man" of v. 1 , not the underling Doeg, cf. J. A. Alexander, The Psalms, 11, p. 13). But a good man can perceive these "perverse things" (Job 6:30). In Scripture all such lapses are subject to God's sovereign control and can be overcome by sincere faith (Psa 38:12 13; Psa 94:19 20). haww . Calamity, wickedness, evil desire, ASV, RSV, also craving, lust; KIV "mischievous desire, naughtiness," Prov 10:3; Prov 11:6; Mic 7:3. Derives from w "to desire" (q.v.). KB, p. 228. ayy . Calamity. A Kethib variant onhaww in Job. hw . Disaster. KJV, ASV, "Mischief," in its archaic sense of calamity. J.B.P. 484.0(h w )II, the older form and rare synonym ofh y (q.v.),be, become.(ASV and RSV similar, but RSV, lie, Eccl 11:3.) (484a)(yhwh)Yahweh. (484b)(y h)Yahweh. The root signifies either existence, e.g. of a tree trunk, being at rest where it falls (Eccl 11:3), or development, e.g. of Nehemiah's alleged scheme to become king of Judah (Neh 6:6). Only three other instances ofh w II are preserved in the Hebrew OT (Gen 27:29; Eccl 2:22; Isa 16:4), though h w remains as the standard form of the verb "to be" in biblical Aramaic. Yahweh. The Tetragrammaton YHWH, the LORD, or Yahweh, the personal name of God and his most frequent designation in Scripture, occurring 5321 times (TDNT, III, p. 1067) in the OT (KJV and ASV, the Lord, or, in those contexts where the actual title "Lord" also occurs, GOD, except KJV, Jehovah, in seven passages where the name is particularly stressed (Exo 6:3; Psa 83:18 ; Isa 12:2; Isa 26:4] or combined with other elements, such as Jehovah Jireh (Gen 22:14; cc Exo 17:15; Jud 6:24; ASV, consistently Jehovah)). y h. A contracted form of Yahweh. Occurs fifty times (rendered in English as above, except KJV, Jah, in Psa 68:4 , where the name is particularly stressed). Also numerous proper nouns compounded with shortened forms of the divine name "Yahweh," e.g.: y h n t n, Jehonathan, "Yahweh has given"; abbreviatedy n t n"Jonathan," a substitute name for the same person (compare 1Sam 13:2 3 with 1Sam 14:6, 8; 2Sam 17:17, 20 with 1Kings 1:42 43); andy h sh p t, Jehoshaphat, "Yahweh has judged"; alternativelyy sh p t, "Joshaphat," applied only to two subordinates of David (1Chr 11:43; 1Chr 15:24). The theological importance ofh w II stems from its derived nouns, which identify the personal name of deity, Yahweh, or its contractions.
6 The tetragrammaton YHWH is not ordinarily written with its appropriate Hebrew vowels. But that the original pronunciation was YaHWeH seems probable, both from the corresponding verbal form, the imperfect ofh w , ancientlyyahweh, and from later representation of YHWH in Greekiaoueoriabe. An apocopated form ofh w in the imperfect, that occurs in Eccl 11:3, isy h (otiose aleph, GKC, p. 211). This in turn may account for the shorter name YHW in the fifth century B.C. Elephantine papyri and the initial elements,y h ,y , andy (KB, p. 369) in such names as Jehozadak, "Yahweh (is) righteous," or Joel, "Yahweh (is) God.". . Among the commonest names with this element arey h n t n"Jonathan," the name of seventeen different OT characters (ISBE, III, pp. 1580, 1730). These include Moses' treacherous (great) grandson Jonathan (Jud 18:30, ASV), David's faithful friend Jonathan, the son of Saul (1Sam 18:1), and David's young courier Jonathan the son of Abiathar (2Sam 15:27; 1Kings 1:42).y h sh p t
7 "Jehoshaphat," identifies six individuals (ISBE, III, pp. 1581 1582, 1743), including Israel's recorder under David and Solomon (2Sam 8:16; 1Kings 4:3) and Judah's fourth king after the division, 872 848 B.C. The name reappears in Joel's prediction of the Valley of Jehoshaphat (Joe) Joel 3:2, 12 ), where God will overcome the nations gathered to oppose his advent in glory. But rather than designating the site of King Jehoshaphat's ancient victory (Beracah between Hebron and Bethlehem, 2Chr 20:26), this title seems to identify a spot beside Jerusalem (Joel 3:17 ), traditionally the Kidron, below Olivet (Zech 14:4). It may be less a place name than prophecy's description of the event ofy h sh p t; "Yahweh has judged.". y h sh y sh designates ten Hebrew leaders (ISBE, III, pp. 1622, 1743) from Moses' successor Joshua (KJV, Jehoshua in Num 13:16; 1Chr 7:27) to the post exilic high priest Jeshua (Ezra 3:2; Neh 12:10). The former's name was changed from the Hiphil infinitive, Hoshea, "salvation," to Joshua, with its deeper spiritual connotation of "Yahweh (is) salvation" (Num 13:8, 16). Both men are called "Jesus" in Greek (Acts 7:45; 1Esd 5:48), i.e.,yesh a is our Lord's Hebrew name, "for he will save his people from their sins" (Mt 1:21). This may be a shortened form with the divine element omitted, meaning "he will save.". The shortened independent form of the divine name, Yah, occurs primarily in poetry and in the exclamation, Hallelu yah, praise Yahweh. It serves also as a terminal element in proper nouns like Elijah: " l y (or l y h ), "God (is) Yahweh.". In the post biblical period, reverence for the ineffable name "Yahweh" caused it to be supplanted in synagogue reading (but not in writing) with the noun dn y, "my master," or Lord. Next, when medieval Jewish scholars began to insert vowels to accompany the consonantal OT text, they added to YHWH the Masoretic vowel points for dn y; and the actual writing became an impossible Y HW H, the ASV "Jehovah.". God's name identifies his nature, so that a request for his "name" is equivalent to asking about his character (Exo 3:13; Hos 12:5 ). Critical speculation about the origin and meaning of "Yahweh" seems endless (cf. L. Kbhler, OT Theology, pp. 4246; IDB, 11, pp. 409 11); but the Bible's own explanation in Exo 3:14 is that it represents the simple (Qal) imperfect ofh w "to be," I am what I am. The precise name Yahweh results when others speak of him in the third person,yahweh"He is." Albright, it is true, has championed a causative rendering, "I cause to be, I create" (From the Stone Age to Christianity, 2d ed., 1946, p. 198; D. N. Freedman, JBL, 79: 151 56); but this is rightly criticized as "conjuring up a nonexistent Hiphil form" (N. Walker, JBL, 79: 277). Some have gone on to suggest that the Qal meaning of Yahweh must be God's unchangeableness toward his people (Exo 3:15; G. Vos, Biblical Theology, p. 134). But, as Moses himself indicated (Exo 3:13), the fact that he was the ancient God of the fathers was insufficient to answer Israel's need at that time; and, in any event, the OT has little to say concerning abstractions such as "the changelessness of deity" (though in the NT Jesus did use Exo 3:14 to introduce the thought of his eternal divine existence, Jn 8:58), God's immediately preceding promise to Moses had been, "Certainly I will be with you" (Exo 3:12). So his assertion in verse 14 would seem to be saying, "I am present is what I am." Indeed, the fundamental promise of his testament is, "I will be their God, and they will be my people" (Exo 6:7; etc.; contrast Hos 1:9); thus "Yahweh," "faithful presence," is God's testamentary nature, or name (Exo 6:2, 4; Deut 7:9; Isa 26:4). The use of Yahweh as a divine name goes back to earliest times (Gen 4:1, 26; Gen 9:26), although the documentation for its employment among other early cultures appears questionable (IDB, II, p. 409). In Exo 6:3 the Lord explains to Moses that by his name Yahweh he had not been "known" to the
8 patriarchs, meaning "know" (seey da ) in its fullest sense: the name was in use (Gen 12:8; Gen 15:2, 7, 8) but was not appreciated in the redemptive significance that it acquired under Moses (J. A. Motyer, The Revelation of the Divine Name). For even the so called P document, which critics have hypothesized as contradicting the Bible's claims to the earlier use of Yahweh (ibid., pp. 3 6), utilizes it in premosaic proper nouns (Jochebed, Exo 6:20; Num 26:59). Commencing with the later judges (1Sam 1:3), the name Yahweh is often combined with b t, "hosts" (armies, q.v.). The Tetragrammaton occurs in every OT book except Eccl and Est. It appears in the ninth century Moabite inscription of Mesha (line 18). From the eighth century onward the element "Yau " is employed in Aramaic names and in Mesopotamian references to Hebrew rulers, Only in pre NT times was God's personal name replaced with the less intimate title dn y (Gr.,kurios) "Lord.". Scripture speaks of the Tetragrammaton as "this glorious and fearful name" (Deut 28:58 ) or simply "the name" (Lev 24:11). But it connotes God's nearness, his concern for man, and the revelation of his redemptive covenant. In Genesis 1 through Genesis 2:3, the general term lh m(q.v.) "deity," is appropriate for God transcendent in creation; but in Gen 2:4 25 it is Yahweh, the God who is immanent in Eden's revelations. In Gen 9:26 27, Elohim enlarges Japheth, but Yahweh is the God of Shem; the latter is especially used in references to the God of Israel. In Psa 19 the heavens declare the glory of El (vv. I 6); but the law of Yahweh is perfect, and Yahweh is "my strength and my redeemer" (vv. 7 14 ; cf. G. T. Manley, The Book of the Law, p. 41). Yet the distinction is not pervasive: Psalms 14 and Psalms 53 are practically identical except for the divine names employed; book I of the Psalter (Psa 1 41) simply prefers Yahweh, and book II (42 72), Elohim. Ultimately the connotations of the name Yahweh are fulfilled in the "covenant of peace," when the God who has been present from the first will be fully present at the last (Isa 41:4); cf. Ezekiel's stress upon God's "sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore" (Ezek 37:26) and his eschatological city's being named YHWH sh mm "Yahweh is there." Bibliography: Abba, R., "The Divine Name Yahweh," JBL 80:320 28. Albright, W. F., Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan, pp. 168 72. Freedman, D. N., "The Name of the God of Moses," JBL 79: 151 56. Harris, R. L., "The Pronunciation of the Tetragram," in The Law and the Prophets, ed. J. H. Skilton, Presbyterian and Reformed, 1974, pp. 215 24. Jacob, E., Theology of the OT, Harper, 1958, pp. 48 54. Motyer, A. J., The Revelation of the Divine Name, London: Tyndale, 1959. Payne, J. B., Theology of the Older Testament, Zondervan, 1962, pp. 147 54. TDNT, III, pp. 1058 81. J.B.P. //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
9 This Is My Name AHYH and YHWH Anchient Hebrew Research Center ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Plowing Through History from Aleph to Tav Ancient Hebrew Research Center and Jeff A. Benner Present: This Is My Name and Shalom In this video, we're going to take a look at the ehyeh asher ehyeh, or, as it's often translated, I Am Who I Am, or I Am That I Am, as found in Exodus 3, verse 14. But we're going to look at it in context with the verse before it and the verse after it, because there's some interesting clues here about the character and the name of Yahweh, and that is what we're going to be examinging here. So, to begin, let's look at Exodus chapter 3 verse 13 , and Mosheh said to the Elohiym, look, I am going to the sons of Israel and I will say to them, Elohiym of your fathers sent me to you and they will say to me, "What is his name," What will I say? So here we can see in this verse that Mosheh wants to know the name of the Elohiym that he is meeting with, so that he can tell them who he is. Now, let's take a look at verse 14. And Elohiym said to Mosheh, "ehyeh asher ehyeh." We're going to come back to this, and we're going to look at this phrase here in a little while, but let's continue on. and he said, thus you will say to the sons of Israel, "Ehyeh" sent me to you. The name Elohiym gives to Mosheh is... Ehyeh (Ehyeh). Interesting that we always hear Yahweh, Jehovah, Yehuweh, Yahovah, etc., but you don't very often hear people say that his name is Ehyeh , and yet, right here in verse 14 it says that his name is Ehyeh . Now, let's take a look at the root of this word Ehyeh , and that's the H Y H, hey yod hey, orhayah. We're going to conjugate this verb.First personis "eh yeh." Ehyeh means "I Exist." Now, the verbhayahliterally means "to exist," but we can also translate it with the verb "to be" in English. In fact, most of the time it is translated with the verb "to be." In this case, "I Am." And, as an example, you can see the word Ehyeh used in Exodus 4, verse 12.
10 Thesecond personwould be "tih yeh." It means "you exist" or "You are." And, an example of this word could be found in Exodus 4, verse 16, if you want to look these up. Then in thethird personis "yih yeh." "He exists" or "He is." An example is also found in Exodus 4, verse 16. 1stperson eh yeh. I Exist, I Am. Ex 4:12 2ndperson tih yeh. You exist, You are. Ex 4:16 3rdperson yih yeh. He exists, He is. Ex 4:16 (Ehyeh) So now, let's take a look at Ehyeh. That's thefirst person, I exist. We could also translate that as I will exist. One of the differences between biblical Hebrew and English is that biblical Hebrew only has two tenses, perfect tense, imperfect tense. Now, the "ehyeh" is imperfect tense. I'm not going to go into too much detail here about the perfect and imperfect, but understand that perfect tense means completed action, imperfect tense means imcomplete action. These tenses are related to action. The Hebrew language is a very action language. It's related to function, action, these concrete concepts. Now, the English tenses are past, present, and future, and they're related to time. So, recognize that when we translate a Hebrew verb, when we translate it into English we have to convert a verb whose tense is related to action and convert it into an English verb that's related to time. Now, this doesn't always work well, and this is one of the problems with translations. When you're reading the bible in Hebrew and you understand these concepts the translation problem doesn't exist because you're thinking in Hebrew and not in English. But for the sake of our study here we're going to have to convert this Hebrew verb into an English verb. Now, the imperfect tense, as I said, is incomplete action. Now that may be an action that has already started but is not yet finished, or it may be an action that has not even started yet. So, ehyeh as an imperfect can be translated as "I exist." That's the English present tense. Or, "I will exist." The English future tense. We could also translate that as "I am," using the verb "to be." Now, let's take a look at that phrase that we saw in verse 14, "ehyeh asher ehyeh." (ehyeh asher ehyeh) Here we have the word "ehyeh" and then the word "asher." "Asher" is the relative pronoun. It could be translated as "which," "who," "what," "because." It depends on the context of how this is used and how we're going to translate it. We could translate that as "I will exist because I will exist." "I exist because I exist." "I am who I am." We could also translate this as "I will be who I will be." Or, "I am that which exists." I will exist because I will exist I exist because I exist I am who I am I will be who I will be I am that which exists