ABOUT THE SCULPTURE SHOWN ON THE COVER The cover image of "Winged Torso", a sculpture which is composed of a cast polyester resin substrate that has been flame sprayed fIrst with zinc and then with bronze. After polishing, the patina of the fmal piece is similar to foundry bronze and the high fIdelity of the substrate's features is maintained. Throughout history, sculpture has been the focus of interaction between mankind's need for creative expression and the available materials technology. The Fusion Bronze process used to create this sculpture by Boston sculptor Barbara Rubin Katz l unites flame sprayed functionally graded metals with the sculptor's art. FUSION BRONZE The Fusion Bronze process utilizes molten metal spray technology in which an electric current melts a bronze wire. The molten bronze (at about 1 OOO C) is entrained in a flow of compressed air in a confmed space. This creates a jet of very small liquid bronze particles that can coat a sculptural substrate (plaster, resin, Fiberglas , or even paper, wax, or wood) with a bronze overlayer. If the sculptural substrate is a material which might be deformed or destroyed by contact with molten bronze, a layer of zinc, which melts at about 400 C, is applied fIrst and then the bronze is deposited. The zinc acts as a thermal plane dissipating the heat as the bronze is applied. Thus the fusion bronze overlayer is truly a Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Substrate Cast Polyester Resin / Zinc Layer o 0.10 inch Schematic of the Microstructure of a FGM, Fusion Bronze sculpture. Surface Oxide or Sulfide Patina IBaroara Rubin Katz trained at the Philadelphia College of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and also studied classical figurative sculpture with Evangelos Frudakis in Philadelphia. On moving to Boston she continued her studies under the guidance of the late Peter Abate, a noted New England sculptor and teacher. She started showing her work publicly in the late 1980's and from the outset received recognition and awards. Since the early 1990's her work has been seen in many exhibitions at the Copley Society of Boston, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Fanueil Hall, Hellenic College, Montserrat College of Art, Bradford College, Worcester Polytechnic Institute and many regional galleries. In 1992 the Copley Society of Boston awarded Barbara Rubin Katz the highly esteemed designation of "Copley Artist".
Contributors Prof. N. Arakt(5.3.2, 5.3.4)* Department of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432 8011, Japan Dr. L. Chen (1) Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2 1 1, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 0812, Japan Dr. N. Cherradi_(5.3.3) 38 Avenue de Montoie CH I007 Lausanne, Switzerland Prof. M. J. Cima_( 6.7.1) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Mass. Ave., Room 12 011, Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A. Prof. F. Erdogan (5.4.3a, 5.4.3b) Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem PA, 18015, U.S.A. Dr. R. G. Ford (Ch.1 8) Editor in chief, Materials Technology, P.O. Box 72, Harrison, NY 10582 0072, U.S.A. Prof. M. Gasik (7.5) Laboratory of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy, Helsinki University of Technology, Vuorimiehentie 2A, FIN 02150 Espoo, Finland Prof. A. M. Glaeser_(6.6.2) Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, Hearst Mining Building, University of Cali fomi a Berkley, CA 94720 U.S.A. Prof. T. Hirai (6.3.5, 7.2.1b) Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2 1 1, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 0812, Japan
x Contributors Dr. K. Hirano (5.4.3c) Department of Materials Science and Bioengineering, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MIT!, Namiki, 1 2, Tsukuba, 305 0044, Japan Mr. T. Hirano (4.3.2, 7.3.2c) Electronic Engineering Laboratory, Daikin Industries, Ltd., Aza Ohtani, Okamoto, Kusatsu City, 525 0044, Japan Prof. B. I1schner (6.2.1, 6.2.3a) Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, MX D, EPFL Ecublens, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Dr. H. Imai (7.3.3) Research Association for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, 821 100, Funaishikawa, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319 1111, Japan Dr. Y. Itoh (7.3.3) Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, Ukijima 2 1, Kawasaki, Kawsaki City, 210 0862, Japan Dr. C. Kawai (5.5.4) Itami Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., 1 1 1, Koya Kita, Itami, Hyogo, 664 0016, Japan Prof. A. Kawasaki (Ch.5, 5.1,5.3.1,5.3.5,5.4.1,5.4.2,5.4.4,5.4.5,5.5) Department of Materials Processing, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8579, Japan Prof. Dr. W. A. Kaysser (Ch.6 and 7, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6. 3. 3a, 6.3.4, 6.3.6, 6.3.7a, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6.1, 6.6.3, 6. 7.2, 7.1, 7.2.1c, 7.3.1, 7.3.2a, 7.3.2b, 7.3.4, 7.4) Director, Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center 51140 Cologne, Germany Prof. Y. Koike (7.7) Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3 14 1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku ku, Yokohama, 223 0061, Japan Prof. M. KoizumU 1) REC, Ryukoku University, Otsu, 520 2123, Japan Mr. K. Kurihara (6.3.5) Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., 10 1, Wakamiya Morinosato, Atsugi shi, Kanagawa, 243 0122, Japan Prof. J. J. LannuttU6.2.1a) Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, 477 Watts Hall, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 1179 U.S.A. Prof. M. I. MendelsonJ6.3.3b, 7.2.1b, 7.2.2, 7.2.3) College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University, Loyola Blvd. at 80th West St., Los Angeles, CA 90045 2699 U.S.A.
Contributors Xl Prof. Y. Miyamoto (Ch.l 8, 1, 5.2, 6.2.3f, 6.7.1, 7.7, 7.8.2, 8) Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567 0047, Japan Dr. T. Nagano (6.7.3) Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Ceramic Superplasticity Project, Fine Ceramic Center, Atsuta, Rokuno 2 4 1, Nagoya 456 8587, Japan Dr. M. Niino (1) Kakuda Research Center, National Aerospace Laboratory, STA Kakuda, Miyagi 981 1525, Japan Prof. I. Nishida (7.3.2c) National Research Institute for Metals, 1 2 1, Sengen, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki, 305 0047, Japan Prof. F. Nogata (2) Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido 1 1, Gifu, 501 1193, Japan Dr. H. Ohnishi (7.8.1) Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Artificial Joint Section and Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Osaka Minami National Hospital, 677 2, Kido Cho, Wachinagano Shi, Osaka, 586 0001, Japan Dr. B. H. Rabin (Ch. 3 and 4, 3, 4) President, GAPowders Inc., 2300 N. Yellowstone Idaho Falls, ID 83404, U.S.A. Mr. K. S. Ramesh (4.3.4) Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 9668, U.S.A. Dr. P. Sarkar (6.3. 7b) Advanced Industrial Materials and Processes Group, Alberta Research Council, 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6N 1E4 Prof. M. Sasaki (6.3.5, 7.2.1b) Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Industrial University, Muzumoto, 27 1, Muroran, 050 0071, Japan Mr. N. Shimoda (6.3.3b) Steel Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel Corporation, 20 1, Shintomi Futtsu, Chiba, 293 8511, Japan Prof. I. Shiota_(7.4.1) Department of Chemical Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665 1, Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192 0015, Japan Dr. Y. Tada_(7.2.1a, 7.2.1b) Foundation for Promotion of Japanese Aerospace Technology, 1 16 6 Izumi Chuo, Izumi ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 981 3133, Japan Prof. M. Tamura_(6.2.2)